TREA & FRANKLIN CLEAVES
Pro Per Inc - Riverside County
Riverside County Horse Thief Coverup • a conspiracy
Horse Thieves • Unlawful Fines
Riverside County Government Officials:
• aiding and abetting is the act of being an accomplice.
Riverside County Board of Supervisors
John J. Benoit,
John F. Tavaglione
Riverside County District Attorney
Assistant District Attorney
Riverside County Counsel Office
3960 Orange St. Riverside, CA 92501
Helen M. Sheehan
Legal Support Assistant II-C
Deputy County Counsels:
L. Alexandra Fong
Li-Chueng Alexandra Fong
Declared under penaltyof perjury on Dec. 16, 2009
that she NEVER heard from us
Bruce Gerald Fordon
Jinny Hee Ra
Pamela Jean Walls
Riverside County Animal Servics
Public Information Chief Riverside Animal Services
MEDIA CALLS: 951-565-7934
Former Riverside County Prosecutor
30520 Rancho California Rd
Temecula, CA 92591
FBI to investigate • U.S. Justice Deparment
The FBI Riverside Resident Agency
P.O. Box 5346 Riverside, CA 92517
3480 Vine Street Suite 200 Riverside, CA 92507
Aiding and Abetting/Accessory
A criminal charge of aiding and abetting or accessory can usually be brought against anyone who helps in the commission of a crime, though legal distinctions vary by state.
A person charged with aiding and abetting or accessory is usually not present when the crime itself is committed, but he or she has knowledge of the crime before or after the fact, and may assist in its commission through advice, actions, or financial support. Depending on the degree of involvement, the offender's participation in the crime may rise to the level of conspiracy.
What is complicity or accomplice liability?
Complicity, also known as aiding and abetting, is the act of being an accomplice. An accomplice is someone who helps in, or in some states merely encourages, the commission of a crime. Courts sometimes refer to such a person as an aider or an abettor. This person did not commit the crime, but his or her actions helped enable someone else to do so. Examples of complicity include supplying weapons or supplies, acting as a lookout, or driving the getaway car. Other examples are bringing the victim to the scene of the crime or signaling the victim's approach. Accomplice liability means that anyone who helps in the commission of a crime is as guilty as the person who committed the crime and could be punished as severely if convicted.
AIDING AND ABETTING (AGENCY)
The guilt of a person in a criminal case may be proved without evidence that he personally did every act involved in the commission of the crime charged. The law recognizes that, ordinarily, anything a person can do for himself may also be accomplished through direction of another person as an agent, or by acting together with, or under the direction of, another person or persons in a joint effort.
So, if the acts or conduct of an agent, employee or other associate of the person are willfully directed or authorized by the person, or if the person aids and abets another person by willfully joining together with that person in the commission of a crime, then the law holds the person responsible for the conduct of that other person just as though the person had engaged in such conduct himself.
Notice, however, that before any person can be held criminally responsible for the conduct of others it is necessary that the person willfully associate himself in some way with the crime, and willfully participate in it. Mere presence at the scene of a crime and even knowledge that a crime is being committed are not sufficient to establish that a person either directed or aided and abetted the crime.
But there are principles of criminal liability that apply to people other than the person who actually committed a crime. For example, under federal law there is a crime called "misprision" of a felony, which applies to a person who has actual knowledge of the commission of a felony and doesn't report it to the authorities.
Also, under federal and most state laws, a person can be held criminally liable as an "accessory after the fact" if she has knowledge that a crime was committed and assists the offender to hinder his apprehension, trial or punishment. You can also be guilty of aiding and abetting a crime if you help another person in committing the crime, with knowledge of the criminal nature of the act they're committing.
Additionally, a person who agrees with another person to commit a crime, after which the other person commits a criminal act to further their agreement, may be guilty of conspiracy.
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