Val describes the trauma that followed the Nazi invasion of Lithuania. Jews were deprived of every basic human right, deprived of food and forced to wear yellow stars. They were terrified by constant arrests and executions. Within 2 months the Jewish population of Kaunas had been reduced from 35,000 to 30,000. Then they were crowded into a small ghetto surrounded by sentries and barbed wire. There was no food, no fuel and shocking conditions. Val was forced into slave labour, which became an unexpected lifeline as it meant he was able to scrounge potato peel for his family to live on.

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