The Only Thing Worse than No Standards is a Bunch of Them

Presenter:

Craig K. Harmon Sensor Expo 7-9 June 2010 Chicago, IL SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems

Founder, JTC 1/SC 31 • Founder, RFID Experts Group (REG) • Chair, JTC 1/SC 31/WG 6 - Mobile Item Identification and Management (Convergence of Mobile Telephony, Mobile Computing, Sensors, and AIDC) • Chair, ISO TC 122/WG 10 - Supply Chain Applications of RFID

• Chair, ISO TC 122/WG 4 (Shipping Labels) & ISO TC 122/WG 7 (Product Packaging) • Vice-chair, ASC MH 10 and U.S. TAG to ISO TC 122 (Packaging) • Senior Project Editor ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4 (RFID) • Chair, U.S. TAG to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4 (RFID) • JTC 1/SC 31 & TC 104 Liaison Officer to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU-R & ITU-T)

• Joint Automotive Industry Forum (JAIF) JAMA/JAPIA/AIAG/ODETTE) – Returnable Transport Items • AIAG Bar Code, Applications, 2D, Tire, Returnables, & RFID Committees • Member, EPCglobal HAG (UHFGen2), FMCG BAG, HLS BAG, SAG, TLS, TDS, AIWG, SBAC, HAT • ISO TC 104 & 122 (Freight Containers / Packaging) Liaison Officer to JTC 1/SC 31

• Past Chair, ASC INCITS T6 (RFID) - ANS INCITS 256:1999, 2001
• Advisor and Member of USPS Strategic Technology Council
• Chairman & Project Editor, ANS MH10.8.2 (Data Application Identifiers)
• Original Project Editor, NATO STANAG 2233 (RFID for NATO Asset Tracking)
• Vocabulary Rapporteur to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31, ISO/IEC 19762 - Harmonized vocabulary • CompTIA RFID Subject Matter Expert and RFID Certified Professional (CRCP) - RFID+
• Recipient of the 2004 Richard Dilling Award

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Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems

3. Why Standards? • Fosters global recognition • Provides global interoperability • Provides sustained development and retention of investment SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
4. Sensor standards IEEE IETF IETF 1451 (8) 6LOWPAN ROLL IEEE ZigBee ZigBee ISA 100 JTC 802.15.4 NET/APP PRO MAC/NET/ 1/WG 27 MAC/PHY NET/APP APP Security JTC 1/SC 31/WG 6 Hart JTC Sensor NET/APP 1/WG 7 WGSN Specs The creation of standards is too expensive and the human capital required is too scarce for efforts to be duplicated by multiple organizations! SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
5. The State of Standards • Radio-frequency identification, including Real Time Locating Systems (RTLS) – ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4 – ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 5 – EPCglobal – RFID/USN – Ubiquitous RFID – Near-field Communications (NFC) – ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 6 • Sensors – ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 6 – Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) – RFID/USN – JTC 1 Study Group on Sensor Networks (SGSN) SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
6. The State of Standards (continued) • Mobile Item Identification & Management (MIIM) – The convergence of mobile computing, wireless communications, and automatic identification – ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 6 – ITU-T SG 16/SG 17 – GS1 MobileCom • Security – ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27 – ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 7 – ITU-T SG 16/SG 17 – ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 6 (for sensors) SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
7. International Standards Activities There will be a short quiz at the end International International Organization for International Electrotechnical International Telecommunications Universal Postal Union Standardization (ISO) Commission (IEC) Union (ITU) (United Nations) (UPU) (United Nations) TC 122 Packaging ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 WG 4 - Shpng Lbl (JTC 1) WG 5 - Terminology WG 7 – Prod Pkgng SC 31 ITU-T (fka CCITT) WG 10 - SCARFID SC 17 Telecommunications Prod Mrkng Automatic Data Capture WG 1 - Symbology IC Cards Standardization TC 104 WG 2 - Data Content Freight Containers WG 3 - Conformance ITU-R (fka CCIR & IFBR) WG 4 - RFID SC 6 Radio-frequency Issues TC 8 WG 5 - RTLS Telcom & Ships & Marine Tech WG 6 - MIIM info exch ITU-D (fka BDT) WG 7 - Security btwn systems Telecommunications Development Regional Comité Européen Normalisation Comité Européen Postal & ODETTE ECMA CENELEC ETSI Telegraph (CEPT) (CEN) National Standards Assoc British Standards KATS Deutches Institut ANSI JISC of China (SAC) Institution (BSI) fur Normung (DIN) MHI AIM GS 1 IEEE INCITS Other T6 B10 Industry DoD ATA ATIS AIA HIBCC AIAG GS 1 Other VDA EPCglobal SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
8. International Activity that Affects You ISO IEC ITU TC 122 TC 3 Packaging JTC 1 Info Doc ITU-R ITU-T IMO TC 104 SC 31 TC 106 Freight AIDC Human WP 1A JCA-NID Containers EMC Exp SC 17 SG 16 TC 8 CISPR WP 1B Ships ICC e-Everything WCO Radio EMI SC 6 WP 5B SG 17 TC 204 Network Security ITS SC 27 TC 247 Security UN/ Anti-Counterfeiting WG 7 ECE SGSN SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
9. JTC 1/SC 31 – Structure JTC 1/SC 31 Vocabulary AIDC WG 1 WG 2 WG 4 WG 5 WG 6 WG 7 ORM Data Structure Data Structure RFID RTLS MIIM Security Tag ID SG 1 Software SG 3 Air Interface IEEE 802.1 IEEE SG 5 1451 5.4 Implementation RFID Emblem SG 6 Conformance SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
10. SC 31/WG 6 Mobile Item Identification & Management SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
11. SC 31/WG 6 Scope Standardization of automatic identification and data collection techniques that are anticipated to be connected to wired or wireless networks, including sensor specifications, combining RFID with mobile telephony, and combining optically readable media with mobile telephony. •Convenor: Craig K. Harmon, United States •Secretary: Se Won Oh, Korea SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
12. SC 31/WG 6 Projects • ISO/IEC 29143, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Air interface specification for Mobile RFID interrogator • ISO/IEC 29172, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Mobile item identification and management — Reference architecture for Mobile AIDC services • ISO/IEC 29173, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Mobile item identification and management — Mobile RFID interrogator device protocol • ISO/IEC 29174, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Mobile item identification and management — UII scheme and encoding format for Mobile AIDC services • ISO/IEC 29175, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Mobile item identification and management — Application data structure and encoding format for Mobile AIDC services SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
13. SC 31/WG 6 Projects • ISO/IEC 29176, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Mobile item identification and management — Consumer privacy-protection protocol for Mobile RFID services • ISO/IEC 29177, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Mobile item identification and management — Object Directory Service for Mobile AIDC services • ISO/IEC 29178, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Mobile item identification and management — Service broker for Mobile AIDC services • ISO/IEC 29179, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Mobile item identification and management — Mobile AIDC application programming interface SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
14. SC 31/WG 6 Project Status WI NP Blt NP Rslt BRM CD Blt CD Rslt BRM FCD Blt FCD BRM FDIS Rslt 29143 31n2336 31n2373 wg6n0039 31n2616 31n2685 wg6n0058 31n2705 31n2805 31n2704 2007-08-22 2007-11-29 2007-08-22 2008-08-27 2008-12-08 2008-12-15 2009-01-07 2009-05-08 2009-05-19 2008-12-01 2009-05-07 29143.2 31n2887 31n2999 31n3012 wg6n0262 2009-07-07 2009-11-09 2010-03-21 2009-11-09 29172 31n2589 31n2657 wg6n0054 31n2914 31n2984 wg6n0205* DTR DTR DTR wg6n0238 2008-07-30 2008-11-03 2009-01-07 2009-08-05 2009-11-05 2010-03-21 2009-11-03 29173-1 31n2590 31n2659 wg6n0054 31n2915 31n2985 wg6n0207* 2008-07-30 2008-11-03 2009-01-07 2009-08-05 2009-11-05 2010-03-21 2009-11-03 29173-1.2 wg6n0241 29174 31n2591 31n2655 wg6n0054 31n2916 31n2986 wg6n0209* 2008-07-30 2008-11-03 2009-01-07 2009-08-05 2009-11-05 2010-03-21 2009-11-03 Rec. 2nd CD 29174.2 wg6n0244 29175 31n2592 31n2661 wg6n0054 31n2917 31n2987 wg6n0211* 2008-07-30 2008-11-03 2009-01-07 2009-08-05 2009-11-05 2010-03-21 2009-11-03 Rec. 2nd CD 29175.2 wg6n0247 *Contained within 31n3060 wrapper SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
15. (cont’ SC 31/WG 6 Project Status (cont’d) WI NP Blt NP Rslt BRM CD Blt CD Rslt BRM FCD Blt FCD BRM FDIS Rslt 29176 31n2593 31n2662 wg6n0054 31n2918 31n2988 wg6n0213* 2008-07-30 2008-11-03 2009-01-07 2009-08-05 2009-11-05 2010-03-21 2009-11-03 29176.2 wg6n0250 29177 31n2594 31n2658 wg6n0054 31n2919 31n2989 wg6n0215* 2008-07-30 2008-11-03 2009-01-07 2009-08-05 2009-11-05 2010-03-21 2009-11-03 29177.2 wg6n0253 29178 31n2595 31n2656 wg6n0054 31n2920 31n2990 wg6n0217* 2008-07-30 2008-11-03 2009-01-07 2009-08-05 2009-11-05 2010-03-21 2009-11-03 29178.2 wg6n0256 29179 31n2596 31n2660 wg6n0054 31n2921 31n2991 wg6n0219* wg6n0259 2008-07-30 2008-11-03 2009-01-07 2009-08-05 2009-11-05 2010-03-21 2009-11-03 *Contained within 31n3060 wrapper SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
16. IEEE Standards to ISO/IEC/IEEE Standards • IEEE Standards to SC 31/WG 6 under PSDO – ISO/IEC/IEEE 21450 [IEEE 1451.0], Information technology — Smart Transducer Interface for Sensors and Actuators — Common Functions, Communication Protocols, and Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) Formats – ISO/IEC/IEEE 21451-1 [IEEE 1451.1], Information technology — Smart Transducer Interface for Sensors and Actuators — Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) Information Model – ISO/IEC/IEEE 21451-2 [IEEE 1451.2], Information technology — Smart Transducer Interface for Sensors and Actuators — Transducer to Microprocessor Communication Protocols and Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) Formats – ISO/IEC/IEEE 21451-4 [IEEE 1451.4], Information technology — Smart Transducer Interface for Sensors and Actuators — Mixed-Mode Communication Protocols and Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) Formats – ISO/IEC/IEEE 8802-15-4 [IEEE 802.15.4-2006], Information technology — Local and metropolitan area networks— Specific requirements, Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless, Personal Area Networks (WPANs) • IEEE 1451.7 to SC 31/WG 6 under PSDO Joint Development – ISO/IEC/IEEE 21451-7, Information technology — Standard for a Smart Transducer Interface for Sensors and Actuators - Transducers to Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems Communication Protocols and Transducer Electronic Data Sheet Formats SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
17. IEEE Standards to ISO/IEC/IEEE Standards (con’t) • IEEE Standards Anticipated to SC 31/WG 6 under PSDO – ISO/IEC/IEEE 21451-5 [IEEE 1451.5], Information technology — Smart Transducer Interface for Sensors and Actuators – Wireless Communication Protocols and Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) Formats • Corrigendum for ZigBee reference from IEEE 802.15.4 – 2003 to ISO/IEC/IEEE 8802-15.4 [IEEE 802.15.4 – 2006] – ISO/IEC/IEEE 21451-3 [IEEE 1451.3], Information technology — Smart Transducer Interface for Sensors and Actuators—Digital Communication and Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) Formats for Distributed Multi-drop Systems SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
18. Measurements for Sensors Measurand Transduction Principle Physical Properties Pressure Piezoresistive Temperature Thermistor, thermo-mechanical, thermocouple Humidity Resistive, capacitive Flow Pressure change, thermistor Motion Properties Position Electromagnetic, GPS, contact sensor Velocity Doppler, Hall effect, optoelectronic Angular velocity Optical encoder Acceleration Piezoresistive, piezoelectric, optical fiber Contact Properties Strain Piezoresistive Force Piezoelectric, piezoresistive Torque Piezoresistive, optoelectronic Slip Dual torque Vibration Piezoresistive, piezoelectric, optical fiber, sound, ultrasound Presence Tactile/contact Contact switch, capacitive Proximity Hall effect, capacitive, magnetic, seismic, acoustic, RF Distance/range Electromagnetic (sonar, radar, lidar), magnetic, tunneling Motion Electromagnetic, IR, acoustic, seismic (vibration) Biochemical Biochemical agents Biochemical transduction Identification Personal features Vision Personal ID Fingerprints, retinal scan, voice, heat plume, vision motion analysis SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
19. SC 31/WG 6 Project Status WI NP Blt NP Rslt BRM CD Blt CD Rslt BRM FCD Blt FCD Rslt BRM 21451-7 31n2896 31n2896 31n2982 31n3029 31n3080 2008-07-24 31n2981 2009-12-02 2009-12-02 2010-12-02 2009-10-22 2010-03-02 WI 30-day FDIS 21450 ISO/IEC/IEEE PSDO FDIS 5-month Fast-track 2009-10-12 2010-03-13 Approved 21451-1 ISO/IEC/IEEE PSDO FDIS 5-month Fast-track 2009-10-12 2010-03- 13Approved 21451-2 ISO/IEC/IEEE PSDO FDIS 5-month Fast-track 2009-10-12 2010-03- 13Approved 21451-4 ISO/IEC/IEEE PSDO FDIS 5-month Fast-track 2009-10-12 2010-03-13 Approved 21451-5 ISO/IEC/IEEE PSDO Proposed – To require 1451.5 corrigendum from 802.15.4-2003 reference to 8802-15-4 [802.15.4-2006] 21451-3 ISO/IEC/IEEE PSDO To Be Proposed 8802-15-4 ISO/IEC/IEEE FDIS 1-month ballot in SC 31 2010-02-03 – 2010-03-05 – 31n3063 31n3080 Ballot ISO/IEC/IEEE PSDO FDIS 5-month Fast-track 2010-02-03 2010-03-29 2010-03-05 2010-08-29 SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
20. Sensor Identification • ISO/IEC/IEEE 2145x 24-bit Organization ID Company ID – OUI-24 Extension Identifier 24 bits 40 bits 36-bit Organization ID Company ID – OUI-36 Extension Identifier 36 bits 28 bits 1451.4 Manufacturer ID Manufacturer Model Version Version Serial ID Number Letter Number Number 14 bits 15 bits 5 bits (A-Z) 6 bits 24 bits SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
21. Primary Sensor Characteristics (TEDS Type 1) Field Name Size Example/Note 1 TEDS type 3 bits 0012 2 Sensor Type 7 bits 00011102 = Relative Humidity 3 Units extension 5 bits Sub-type, e.g., for chemical sensors 4 Sensor map 16 bits 5 Data resolution 5 bits Sensor capability 6 Scale Factor Significand 11 bits Sensor capability 7 Scale Factor Exponent 6 bits Sensor capability 8 Scale Offset Significand 11 bits Sensor capability 9 Scale Offset Exponent 6 bits Sensor capability 10 Data uncertainty 3 bits Sensor capability 11 Sensor Reconfiguration Capability 1 bit 0 = NO 1 = YES 12 Memory Rollover Capability 1 bit 0 = NO 1 = YES Air Interface Security Capability Code 13 3 bits See Table 5 for details. (See Note 1) 0002=No Direct Sensor Security. If greater than zero then at least one-way password security is supported. If greater than zero and at least one Sensor Security Capability Code authentication encryption algorithm is supported, then two-way initial encrypted 14 3 bits (See Note 1) authentication is also supported. See Continuing Authentication Capability field of this table for directions supported when continuing to authenticate each command. See Table 6 for Sensor Security Capability Code assignments. Note 1: If the air interface and sensor security systems are both supported and if Security Function Codes based on the capability codes are programmed to different levels, then the more secure mode shall apply to how the sensor processes commands. SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
22. Primary Sensor Characteristics (TEDS Type 1) - Continued Field Name Size Example/Note 15 Sensor Authentication Encryption Choices of encryption algorithms for authentication that the sensor supports. If 7 bits Capability Map all zeroes then encrypted authentication is not supported. 16 Choices of encryption algorithms for data that the sensor supports. If all bits are zero then data encryption is not supported. If data encryption is supported, Sensor Data Encryption Capability Map 7 bits the directions supported are detailed in the Data Encryption Capability field of this table. 17 Sensor Authentication Password/Key 3 bits 0002=16 bits, 0012=32 bits, 0102=64 bits, 0112=128 bits, 1002~1112 = RFU Size (See Note 2) 18 Sensor Data Encryption Key Size 3 bits 0002=16 bits, 0012=32 bits, 0102=64 bits, 0112=128 bits, 1002~1112 = RFU (See Note 3) 19 Random Number Sizes Supported 0002 = 16 bits, 0012 = 16 & 32 bits, 0102 = 16, 32 & 64 bits, 0112= 16, 32, 64, & 3 bits (See Note 4) 128 bits, 1002~1112 = RFU Note 2: For sensor authentication the term “password/key” is used instead of simply “key” because this field functions as a key if the sensor has authentication encryption but as a password if it does not. Though sensor authentication password/key sizes are 16 bits and greater, if Sensor Security Capability Code is 000, then there is no password or key and this overrides the password/key length field. It is possible via the Sensor Authentication Encryption Capability Map to select a standardized encryption algorithm with a key length that overrides the key length field. The key length field is to allow algorithms that support multiple key lengths to specify the particular length the tag uses. For example, AES can have key lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits (though only 128 is specified for this standard version). Note 3: Though sensor data encryption key sizes are 16 bits and greater, if Sensor Security Capability Code is 000, then there is no key and this overrides the key length field. It is possible via the Sensor Data Encryption Capability Map to select a standardized encryption algorithm with a key length that overrides the key length field. Note 4: A random number generator is needed to support authentication, which it does by providing a continuously changing number to encrypt into a security token that proves the key is possessed. The supported random number sizes in this version are all or a subset of 16, 32, 64, and 128. Though the random number size is 16 bits and greater, if Sensor Encryption Capability Code is 000, then there is no random number generator and this overrides the Random Number Size field. The actual random number sizes to be used by each side of the link are provided by the Challenge command for the initial authentication, and by the Reader-Authenticate command for Continuing Authentication. See next comment SYSTEMS Copyright © 2010 - Q.E.D. Systems
23. Primary Sensor Characteristics (TEDS Type 1) - Continued Field Name Size Example/Note 20 Continuing Authentication Capability field 2 bit See Table 9 for details. (See Note 5) 21 Data Encryption Capability field 2 bit Table 10 for details. 22 00: >10% 001: 10% 010: 5% Clock Accuracy 011: 2% 3 bits (See Note 6) 100: 1% 101: 300 ppm 110: 100 ppm 111:

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