Laws Of Science - Don Patton - video and more quotes on the second law and how it relates to the 'deteriorating' fossil record:
Little known by most people is the fact that almost every, if not every, major branch of modern science has been founded by a scientist who believed in Christ:
Christianity and The Birth of Science - Michael Bumbulis, Ph.D
Excerpt: Furthermore, many of these founders of science lived at a time when others publicly expressed views quite contrary to Christianity - Hume, Hobbes, Darwin, etc. When Boyle argues against Hobbe's materialism or Kelvin argues against Darwin's assumptions, you don't have a case of "closet atheists."
Christianity Gave Birth To Each Scientific Discipline - Dr. Henry Fritz Schaefer - video
A Short List Of The Christian Founders Of Modern Science
Founders of Modern Science Who Believe in GOD - Tihomir Dimitrov
This following site is a easy to use, and understand, interactive website that takes the user through what is termed 'Presuppositional apologetics'. The website clearly shows that our use of the laws of logic, mathematics, science and morality cannot be accounted for unless we believe in a God who guarantees our perceptions and reasoning are trustworthy in the first place.
Proof That God Exists - easy to use interactive website
Materialism simply dissolves into absurdity when pushed to extremes and certainly offers no guarantee to us for believing our perceptions and reasoning within science are trustworthy in the first place:
Dr. Bruce Gordon - The Absurdity Of The Multiverse & Materialism in General - video
Conservation Of Transcendent Information - 2007 - video
These following studies verified the violation of the first law of thermodynamics that I had suspected in the preceding video:
How Teleportation Will Work -
Excerpt: In 1993, the idea of teleportation moved out of the realm of science fiction and into the world of theoretical possibility. It was then that physicist Charles Bennett and a team of researchers at IBM confirmed that quantum teleportation was possible, but only if the original object being teleported was destroyed. --- As predicted, the original photon no longer existed once the replica was made.
Quantum Teleportation - IBM Research Page
Excerpt: "it would destroy the original (photon) in the process,,"
Unconditional Quantum Teleportation - abstract
Excerpt: This is the first realization of unconditional quantum teleportation where every state entering the device is actually teleported,,
Of note: conclusive evidence for the violation of the First Law of Thermodynamics is firmly found in the preceding experiment when coupled with the complete displacement of the infinite transcendent information of "Photon c":
In extension to the 2007 video, the following video and article shows quantum teleportation breakthroughs have actually shed a little light on exactly what, or more precisely on exactly Whom, has created this universe:
Scientific Evidence For God (Logos) Creating The Universe - 2008 - video
Since time,space and matter,energy, came into being at the Big Bang, then atheistic materialism is left wanting for any rational explanation whatsoever because,,,,
Billy Preston - Nothing from nothing leaves nothing - music video
According to esteemed British mathematical physicist Roger Penrose (1931-present), the precision of the initial entropy of the universe, required such precision that the "Creator’s aim must have been to an accuracy of 1 part in 10^10^123”. This number is gargantuan. If this number were written out in its entirety, 1 with 10^123 zeros to the right, it could not be written on a piece of paper the size of the entire visible universe, even if a number were written down on each sub-atomic particle in the entire universe, since the universe only has 10^80 sub-atomic particles in it.
Roger Penrose discusses the initial entropy of the universe. - video
The Physics of the Small and Large: What is the Bridge Between Them? Roger Penrose
Excerpt: "The time-asymmetry is fundamentally connected to with the Second Law of Thermodynamics: indeed, the extraordinarily special nature (to a greater precision than about 1 in 10^10^123, in terms of phase-space volume) can be identified as the "source" of the Second Law (Entropy)."
How special was the big bang? - Roger Penrose
Excerpt: This now tells us how precise the Creator's aim must have been: namely to an accuracy of one part in 10^10^123.
(from the Emperor’s New Mind, Penrose, pp 339-345 - 1989)
This 1 in 10^10^123 number, for the time-asymmetry of the initial state of the 'ordered entropy' for the universe, also lends strong support for 'highly specified infinite information' creating the universe since;
"Gain in entropy always means loss of information, and nothing more."
Gilbert Newton Lewis
"If complex organisms ever did evolve from simpler ones, the process took place contrary to the laws of nature, and must have involved what may rightly be termed the miraculous."
R.E.D. Clark, Victoria Institute (1943), p. 63.
Evolution Vs. Thermodynamics - Open System Refutation - Thomas Kindell - video
"there are no known violations of the second law of thermodynamics. Ordinarily the second law is stated for isolated systems, but the second law applies equally well to open systems."
John Ross, Chemical and Engineering News, 7 July 1980
"...the quantity of entropy generated locally cannot be negative irrespective of whether the system is isolated or not."
Arnold Sommerfel, Thermodynamics And Statistical Mechanics, p.155
Bertalanffy (1968) called the relation between irreversible thermodynamics and information theory one of the most fundamental unsolved problems in biology."
Charles J. Smith - Biosystems, Vol.1, p259.
"Is there a real connection between entropy in physics and the entropy of information? ....The equations of information theory and the second law are the same, suggesting that the idea of entropy is something fundamental..." Siegfried, Dallas Morning News, 5/14/90, [Quotes Robert W. Lucky, Ex. Director of Research, AT&T, Bell Laboratories & John A. Wheeler, of Princeton & Univ. of TX, Austin]
Entropy (information theory)
Excerpt: But, at a multidisciplinary level, connections can be made between thermodynamic and informational entropy, although it took many years in the development of the theories of statistical mechanics and information theory to make the relationship fully apparent. In fact, in the view of Jaynes (1957), thermodynamics should be seen as an application of Shannon's information theory: the thermodynamic entropy is interpreted as being an estimate of the amount of further Shannon information needed to define the detailed microscopic state of the system, that remains uncommunicated by a description solely in terms of the macroscopic variables of classical thermodynamics.
Klimontovich’s S-theorem, an analogue of Boltzmann’s entropy for open systems, explains why the further an open system gets from the equilibrium, the less entropy becomes. So entropy-wise, in open systems there is nothing wrong about the Second Law. S-theorem demonstrates that spontaneous emergence of regular structures in a continuum is possible.,,, The hard bit though is emergence of cybernetic control (which is assumed by self-organisation theories and which has not been observed anywhere yet). In contrast to the assumptions, observations suggest that between Regularity and Cybernetic Systems there is a vast Cut which cannot be crossed spontaneously. In practice, it can be crossed by intelligent integration and guidance of systems through a sequence of states towards better utility. No observations exist that would warrant a guess that apart from intelligence it can be done by anything else. - Eugene S - UD Blogger
A second look at the second law - Granville Sewell
* The law that entropy always increases holds, I think, the supreme position among the laws of Nature. If someone points out to you that your pet theory of the universe is in disagreement with Maxwell’s equations — then so much the worse for Maxwell’s equations. If it is found to be contradicted by observation — well, these experimentalists do bungle things sometimes. But if your theory is found to be against the second law of thermodynamics I can give you no hope; there is nothing for it but to collapse in deepest humiliation.
o Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, The Nature of the Physical World (1915), chapter 4
* A theory is the more impressive the greater the simplicity of its premises, the more different kinds of things it relates, and the more extended its area of applicability. Therefore the deep impression that classical thermodynamics made upon me. It is the only physical theory of universal content which I am convinced will never be overthrown, within the framework of applicability of its basic concepts.
o Albert Einstein (author), Paul Arthur, Schilpp (editor). Autobiographical Notes. A Centennial Edition. Open Court Publishing Company. 1979. p. 31 [As quoted by Don Howard, John Stachel. Einstein: The Formative Years, 1879-1909 (Einstein Studies, vol. 8). Birkhäuser Boston. 2000. p. 1]
* Nothing in life is certain except death, taxes and the second law of thermodynamics. All three are processes in which useful or accessible forms of some quantity, such as energy or money, are transformed into useless, inaccessible forms of the same quantity. That is not to say that these three processes don’t have fringe benefits: taxes pay for roads and schools; the second law of thermodynamics drives cars, computers and metabolism; and death, at the very least, opens up tenured faculty positions.
o Seth Lloyd, writing in Nature 430, 971 (26 August 2004)
"The laws of probability apply to open as well as closed systems."
Granville Sewell - Professor Of Mathematics - University Of Texas El Paso
'The information content of a simple cell had been estimated as around 10^12 bits, comparable to about a hundred million pages of the Encyclopedia Britannica."
Carl Sagan, "Life" in Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia (1974 ed.), pp. 893-894
of note: The 10^12 bits of information number for a bacterium is derived from entropic considerations, which is, due to the tightly integrated relationship between information and entropy, considered the most accurate measure of the transcendent information present in a 'simple' life form. For calculations please see the following site:
Molecular Biophysics – Information theory. Relation between information and entropy:
Ben Stein - EXPELLED - The Staggering Complexity Of The Cell - video
Information and entropy – top-down or bottom-up development in living systems? A.C. McINTOSH
Excerpt: It is proposed in conclusion that it is the non-material information (transcendent to the matter and energy) that is actually itself constraining the local thermodynamics to be in ordered disequilibrium and with specified raised free energy levels necessary for the molecular and cellular machinery to operate.
Functional Information and Entropy in living systems - Andy McIntosh
Excerpt: There has to be previously written information or order (often termed “teleonomy”) for passive, non-living chemicals to respond and become active. Thus the following summary statement applies to all known systems: Energy + Information equals Locally reduced entropy (Increase of order) (or teleonomy) with the corollary: Matter and Energy alone does not equal a Decrease in Entropy
Materialists simply do not have the 'beneficial' mutations they need to make evolution work. The following site has numerous quotes, studies and videos which reveal the overwhelmingly negative mutation rate which has been found in life:
“But in all the reading I’ve done in the life-sciences literature, I’ve never found a mutation that added information… All point mutations that have been studied on the molecular level turn out to reduce the genetic information and not increase it.”
Lee Spetner - Ph.D. Physics - MIT - Not By Chance
Mutation Studies, Videos, And Quotes
Stephen C. Meyer - The Scientific Basis For Intelligent Design
Stephen C. Meyer - Signature In The Cell:
"DNA functions like a software program," "We know from experience that software comes from programmers. Information--whether inscribed in hieroglyphics, written in a book or encoded in a radio signal--always arises from an intelligent source. So the discovery of digital code in DNA provides evidence that the information in DNA also had an intelligent source."
Extreme Software Design In Cells - Stephen Meyer - video
The Capabilities of Chaos and Complexity - David L. Abel - 2009
Excerpt: "A monstrous ravine runs through presumed objective reality. It is the great divide between physicality and formalism. On the one side of this Grand Canyon lies everything that can be explained by the chance and necessity of physicodynamics. On the other side lies those phenomena than can only be explained by formal choice contingency and decision theory—the ability to choose with intent what aspects of ontological being will be preferred, pursued, selected, rearranged, integrated, organized, preserved, and used. Physical dynamics includes spontaneous non linear phenomena, but not our formal applied-science called “non linear dynamics”(i.e. language,information).
Natural Selection and Mutations Reduce Genetic Information - Lee Spetner - Michael Denton - video
EXPELLED - Natural Selection And Genetic Mutations - video
"...but Natural Selection reduces genetic information and we know this from all the Genetic Population studies that we have..."
Maciej Marian Giertych - Population Geneticist - member of the European Parliament - EXPELLED
Conservation of Information In Search - William Dembski and Robert Marks - Sept. 2009
The Capabilities of Chaos and Complexity: David L. Abel - Null Hypothesis For Information Generation - 2009
To focus the scientific community’s attention on its own tendencies toward overzealous metaphysical imagination bordering on “wish-fulfillment,” we propose the following readily falsifiable null hypothesis, and invite rigorous experimental attempts to falsify it: "Physicodynamics cannot spontaneously traverse The Cybernetic Cut:
The foundational rule for biology, Genetic Entropy, which can draw its foundation in science from the twin pillars of the Second Law of Thermodynamics and from the Law of Conservation of Information (Dembski, Marks) (Abel - Null Hypothesis), can be stated something like this:
"All beneficial adaptations away from a parent species for a sub-species, which increase fitness to a particular environment, will always come at a loss of the optimal functional information that was originally created in the parent species genome."
Genetic Entropy - Dr. John Sanford - Evolution vs. Reality - video
Evolution vs. Genetic Entropy - Prof. Andy McIntosh - video
Entropy is also confirmed 'mathematically' with rigorous computer simulation;
Using Computer Simulation to Understand Mutation Accumulation Dynamics and Genetic Load:
Excerpt: We apply a biologically realistic forward-time population genetics program to study human mutation accumulation under a wide-range of circumstances.,, Our numerical simulations consistently show that deleterious mutations accumulate linearly across a large portion of the relevant parameter space.
MENDEL’S ACCOUNTANT: J. SANFORD†, J. BAUMGARDNER‡, W. BREWER§, P. GIBSON¶, AND W. REMINE
Since material processes cannot produce information, Where did the information come from?
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made.
More Evidence Cambrian Explosion was Un-Darwinian - January, 2012
Excerpt: It’s hard to see evolution in the picture of “early origination and subsequent conservation in crustacean form and function” these fossils illustrate, especially when the fossil copepods are larger than modern ones.
Giant Insects Might Reign If Only There Was More Oxygen In The Air
Excerpt: The Paleozoic period, about 300 million years ago, was a time of huge and abundant plant life and rather large insects -- dragonflies had two-and-a-half-foot wing spans, for example.
They did not hunt humans because there were no humans to hunt, but insects of gargantuan proportions really did exist 300 million years ago.,,, However, Harrison points out that the presumption that the Paleozoic oxygen pulse actually caused the evolution of giant insects rests more on inference than evidence. There are no living giant insects, or fossils of their tracheae. As a result, biologists are forced to study the next best thing: related species still alive and crawling and flying today. A convincing test of the oxygen pulse hypothesis will depend on the weight of evidence from studies of several species. This takes time. Harrison and his students are contributing to the effort.
“Our work is important because it is the first research I am aware of to experimentally test Graham and Dudley’s hypothesis,” he says. But until he and others produce the necessary data, Harrison’s good scientific sense requires him to take other possible explanations into consideration. “There has been a lot of ‘gigantism gone extinct’ in other groups,” he explains. Some well-known examples are the dinosaurs and the elephant-like mastodons of the Pleistocene era. In these groups, evolution has not been linked to atmospheric oxygen levels, Harrison explains. “Obviously, there are other environmental or ecological reasons for gigantism and gigantism gone extinct,” he adds. Some researchers might find this uncertainty unnerving. Harrison is excited by the opportunity to pursue a number of intriguing possibilities.
Giant Sea Scorpion Discovered; Was Bigger Than a Man
Excerpt: The size of a large crocodile, the 390-million-year-old sea scorpion
Ancient sea monsters not to be messed with
Bizarre shrimp-like predators grew larger and survived longer than thought - May 2011
Excerpt: Past research showed they dominated the seas during the early and middle Cambrian period 542 million to 501 million years ago, a span of time known for the "Cambrian Explosion" that saw the appearance of all the major animal groups and the establishment of complex ecosystems.,,, Now, extraordinarily well-preserved fossils unearthed in the rocky desert in southeastern Morocco by local collector Mohammed Ben Moula reveal giant anomalocaridids that measured more than 3 feet in length (following the Cambrian period).,,, "There have been suggestions of Cambrian anomalocaridids of over 6 feet in length, but these estimates are extrapolations from very fragmentary material, and hence not too reliable." Moreover, these newly examined creatures date back to the period that followed the Cambrian, the early Ordovician, 488 million to 472 million years ago, meaning these predators lived for 30 million years longer than previously known. "Now we know that they died out much more recently than we thought," Briggs said.
Giant Roach Fossil Found in Ohio Coal Mine
Excerpt: The strip coal mine has also yielded fossils of two rare arachnids, a giant centipede-like insect measuring about 60 inches long (150 centimeters) and 12 inches wide (30 centimeters),
Dinosaurs had fleas too -- giant ones, fossils show - February 29, 2012
Excerpt: New fossils found in China are evidence of the oldest fleas - from 125 million to 165 million years ago,,,, Scientists figure about eight or more of today's fleas would fit on the burly back of their ancient ancestor. "That's a beast," said study co-author Michael Engel, entomology curator,, "It was a big critter. I can't even imagine coming home and finding my miniature schnauzer with one or more of these things crawling around on it."
The ancient female fleas were close to twice the size of the males, researchers found, which fits with modern fleas.
Were dinosaurs undergoing long-term decline before mass extinction? - May 1, 2012
Excerpt: The researchers found that hadrosaurs and ceratopsids, two groups of large-bodied, bulk-feeding herbivores—animals that did not feed selectively—may have experienced a decline in biodiversity in the 12 million years before the dinosaurs ultimately went extinct.,,, "Contrary to how things are often perceived, the Late Cretaceous wasn't a static 'lost world' that was violently interrupted by an asteroid impact. Some dinosaurs were undergoing dramatic changes during this time, and the large herbivores seem to have been mired in a long-term decline, at least in North America."
Large Cretaceous Giant Water Bug Fossil Insect from Brazil
"SuperCroc" Fossil Found in Sahara - 2001
Excerpt: Scientists have unearthed the remains of an ancient crocodile that was as long as a city bus and as heavy as a small whale.
The giant creature, which lived 110 million years ago, during the Middle Cretaceous, grew as long as 40 feet (12 meters) and weighed as much as eight metric tons (17,500 pounds).
Its jaws alone were nearly six feet (1.8 meters) long and its more than 100 teeth so powerful that the colossal creature probably consumed small dinosaurs as well as fish, the researchers say.
Fossil finds: Shieldcroc! Mother of all crocodiles? - February 2012
Excerpt: Holliday analyzed Shieldcroc’s skull and brain to estimate the overall size of the reptile. He said scientists often use head size of an animal to estimate its total length. Using several parameters, Holliday and Gardner estimate that this specimen had a 5-foot long head and was 30 feet long.
Largest Known Crocodile Could Swallow a Human - (May 4, 2012)
Excerpt: “It may have exceeded 27 feet in length. By comparison, the largest recorded Nile crocodile was less than 21 feet, and most are much smaller.”,, The new species lived between 2 and 4 million years ago in Kenya. It resembled its living cousin, the Nile crocodile, but was more massive.
Ancient snake was as long as a bus
He added, "The snake's body was so wide that if it were moving down the hall and decided to come into my office to eat me, it would literally have to squeeze through the door."
Giant mammals once ruled the earth
After dinosaurs disappeared 65 million years ago, the world's rhinos, elephants and other large mammals had the run of the Earth and grew as much as twice as big as they are today, a new study shows.
Giant Fossil Bats Out Of Africa, 35 Million Years Old
Excerpt: Among the new species is “a giant among bats; though weighing in at less than a half-pound, it is one of the largest fossil bats ever discovered,” said Greg Gunnell, a paleontologist at the University of Michigan.
Australia's fossil past
Excerpt: The Darling Downs region contains fossilised remains of prehistoric megafauna - gigantic creatures such as large goannas, kangaroos and giant horned turtles. The megafauna lived during the Pleistocene epoch (1.8 million to 11,550 years BP), and included Diprotodon opatatum that grew as large as a rhinoceros and Thylacoleo carnifex, a marsupial lion.
Giant size plant fossils discovered near Jodhpur
Excerpt: The largest non-carbonaceous plant fossils, 140 times bigger than today's algae species,,,, The fossils, which are visible to the naked eye are well-preserved with the size of the plant 140 times larger than the existing species, lead author of the paper, Surendra Kumar of Centre of Advanced Study in Geology, University of Lucknow said. The scientists said the plants attained such large size during the Ediacaran period some 630-542 million years ago.
Specific species of mega fauna have captured the attention of the majority, the saber-toothed tiger and the wooly mammoth for example. However there was actually an incredible variety of giant creatures, incomprehensible by our perception of animals in the current world.
(Giant ground sloth)
20 feet long (6 m.)
(Giant Irish elk)
7 feet high (2.1 m.)
11.5 feet long (3.5 m.)
8-10 feet high (2.5 - 3 m.)
10 feet long (3 m.)
(Cave bear) Omnivore
20 feet long
13 feet long (4 m.)
11 feet long (3.5 m.)
3.3ft high (1 m.)
12 feet high (3.6 m.)
(Short faced bear)
5.5 feet high (1.7 m.)
4-5 feet long (1.2-1.5 m.)
5 feet high (1.5 m.)
(Cave bear) Omnivore
20 feet long
Panthera leo spelaea
11.5 feet long (3.5 m.)
New to Nature No 57: Nuralagus rex - The fossil of the giant rabbit of Menorca show it to be the largest lagomorph ever seen
Excerpt: Nuralagus rex lived in the Late Neogene, which ended about 2.5m years ago, and was 10 times the size of extant rabbits, weighing an estimated average of 12 kg.
"The sweep of anatomical diversity reached a maximum right after the initial diversification of multicellular animals. The later history of life proceeded by elimination not expansion."
Stephen J. Gould, Harvard, Wonderful Life, 1989, p.46
Further facts that conform to the principle of genetic entropy:
"According to a ‘law’ formulated by E. D. Cope in 1871, the body size of organisms in a peculiar evolutionary lineage tends to increase. But Cope’s rule has failed the most comprehensive test applied to it yet."(body sizes tend to get smaller over time rather than larger)
Stephen Gould, Harvard, Nature, V.385, 1/16/97
"Also that mammalian life was richer in kinds, of larger sizes, and had a more abundant expression in the Pliocene than in later times."
Von Engeln & Caster Geology, p.19
"Alexander Kaiser, Ph.D., of Midwestern University’s Department of Physiology,,, was the lead author in a recent study to help determine why insects, once dramatically larger than they are today, have seen such a remarkable reduction in size over the course of history."
Science Daily, 8/8/07
Dinosaur die-off cleared way for gigantic mammals
Excerpt: The largest land mammal ever: A rhinoceros-like creature, minus the horn, that stood 18 feet tall, weighed roughly 17 tons and grazed in forests in what is now Eurasia. It makes the better known woolly mammoth seem a bit puny.,,, Within 25 million years of the dinosaurs' extinction — fast, in geologic terms — overall land mammals had reached a maximum size and then leveled off, an international team of scientists reports Friday in the journal Science. And while different species on different continents reached their peaks at different points in time, that pattern of 'evolution' was remarkably similar worldwide. (please note: the 'remarkable similarity' of pattern (largest of particular 'kinds' first, smaller of particular 'kinds' later) supports the principle of Genetic Entropy (loss of genetic information) and does not support the 'randomness' that would be expected of a Darwinian evolution scenario)
Giants among us: Paper explores evolution of the world's largest mammals
Excerpt:The researchers found that the pattern was indeed consistent, not only globally but across time and across trophic groups and lineages—that is, animals with differing diets and descended from different ancestors—as well. The maximum size of mammals began to increase sharply about 65 million years ago (with the extinction of dinosaurs), peaking in the Oligocene Epoch (about 34 million years ago) in Eurasia, and again in the Miocene Epoch (about 10 million years ago) in Eurasia and Africa. (of note: the sudden appearance of unique 'body plans' of the different mammal 'kinds' is totally disregarded in the paper)
Mammals Partied When Dinosaurs Left
Are brains shrinking to make us smarter? - February 2011
Excerpt: Human brains have shrunk over the past 30,000 years,
Punctuated Equilibrium and Patterns from the Fossil Record - Casey Luskin
Excerpt: “The Cambrian Explosion is by no means the only “explosion” in the fossil record. One evolutionist concedes that for the origin of fishes, “this is one count in the creationists’ charge that can only evoke in unison from paleontologists a plea of nolo contendere [no contest].” Plant biologists have called the origin of plants an “explosion,” saying, “the … radiation of land (plant) biotas is the terrestrial equivalent of the much-debated Cambrian ‘explosion’ of marine faunas.” Vertebrate paleontologists believe there was a mammal explosion because of the few transitional forms between major mammal groups: “There are all sorts of gaps: absence of gradationally intermediate ‘transitional’ forms between species, but also between larger groups — between, say, families of carnivores, or the orders of mammals.” Another study, “Evolutionary Explosions and the Phylogenetic Fuse,” found a bird (as well as a mammal) “Early Tertiary ‘explosion’” because many bird and mammal groups appear in a short time period lacking immediately recognizable ancestral forms. Finally, others have called the origin of our own genus Homo, “a genetic revolution” where “no australopithecine (ape) species is obviously transitional” leading one commentator to call it, like others called the Cambrian Explosion, a “big bang theory” of human evolution."
In fact, the loss of morphological traits over time, for all organisms found in the fossil record, was/is so consistent that it was made into a 'scientific law':
Dollo's law and the death and resurrection of genes:
Excerpt: "As the history of animal life was traced in the fossil record during the 19th century, it was observed that once an anatomical feature was lost in the course of evolution it never staged a return. This observation became canonized as Dollo's law, after its propounder, and is taken as a general statement that evolution is irreversible."
A general rule of thumb for the 'Deterioration/Genetic Entropy' of Dollo's Law as it applies to the fossil record is found here:
Dollo's law and the death and resurrection of genes
ABSTRACT: Dollo's law, the concept that evolution is not substantively reversible, implies that the degradation of genetic information is sufficiently fast that genes or developmental pathways released from selective pressure will rapidly become nonfunctional. Using empirical data to assess the rate of loss of coding information in genes for proteins with varying degrees of tolerance to mutational change, we show that, in fact, there is a significant probability over evolutionary time scales of 0.5-6 million years for successful reactivation of silenced genes or "lost" developmental programs. Conversely, the reactivation of long (>10 million years)-unexpressed genes and dormant developmental pathways is not possible unless function is maintained by other selective constraints;
Dollo's Law was further verified to the molecular level here:
Dollo’s law, the symmetry of time, and the edge of evolution - Michael Behe
Excerpt: We predict that future investigations, like ours, will support a molecular version of Dollo's law:,,, Dr. Behe comments on the finding of the study, "The old, organismal, time-asymmetric Dollo’s law supposedly blocked off just the past to Darwinian processes, for arbitrary reasons. A Dollo’s law in the molecular sense of Bridgham et al (2009), however, is time-symmetric. A time-symmetric law will substantially block both the past and the future.
Some Further Research On Dollo's Law - Wolf-Ekkehard Lonnig - November 2010
One of the best examples for genetic entropy being obeyed in the fossil record is found with trilobite fossils:
Trilobites are one of the most prolific 'kinds' found in the fossil record with an extensive worldwide distribution. They appeared abruptly at the base of the Cambrian explosion with no evidence of transmutation from the 'simple' creatures that preceded them, nor is there any evidence they ever produced anything else besides other trilobites during the entire time they are found in the fossil record. In fact the 270 million year span of fossil evidence points to sudden appearance, rapid diversity, long term stability and then slow deterioration of variety until extinction. Thus conforming exactly to the principle of 'top down' Genetic Entropy and directly contradicting neo-Darwinism:
The Cambrian's Many Forms
Excerpt: "It appears that organisms displayed “rampant” within-species variation “in the ‘warm afterglow’ of the Cambrian explosion,” Hughes said, but not later. “No one has shown this convincingly before, and that’s why this is so important.""From an evolutionary perspective, the more variable a species is, the more raw material natural selection has to operate on,"....(Yet Surprisingly)...."There's hardly any variation in the post-Cambrian," he said. "Even the presence or absence or the kind of ornamentation on the head shield varies within these Cambrian trilobites and doesn't vary in the post-Cambrian trilobites." University of Chicago paleontologist Mark Webster; article on the "surprising and unexplained" loss of variation and diversity for trilobites over the 270 million year time span that trilobites were found in the fossil record, prior to their total extinction from the fossil record about 250 million years ago.
This long time span study of fossilized flies also conforms to genetic entropy;
Surprises in Science Never End
Excerpt: Not mentioned as surprising, but arguably so, is the fact that “members of the oldest, still-living fly families are rare’
Fossil of a giant ant found in North America
Excerpt: The fossil of a gigantic ant, similar to ones that lived 50 million years ago in Europe, has been found for the first time in North America.
If the abrupt appearance for all the completely different and unique phyla in the Cambrian was not bad enough for materialists, the fossil record shows there was actually more variety of phyla by the end of the Cambrian explosion than there are today due to extinction.
“A simple way of putting it is that currently we have about 38 phyla of different groups of animals, but the total number of phyla discovered during the Cambrian explosion (including those in China, Canada, and elsewhere) adds up to over 50 phyla. (Actually the number 50 was first quoted as over 100 for a while, but then the consensus became 50-plus.) That means there are more phyla in the very, very beginning, where we found the first fossils, than exist now.” “Also, the animal explosion caught people's attention when the Chinese confirmed they found a genus now called Yunnanzoon that was present in the very beginning of the Cambrian explosion. This genus is considered a chordate, and the phylum Chordata includes fish, mammals and man. An evolutionist would say the ancestor of humans was present then. Looked at more objectively, you could say the most complex animal group, the chordates, were represented at the very beginning, and they did not go
through a slow gradual evolution to become a chordate.”
Dr. Paul Chien PhD., chairman of the biology department at the University of San Francisco
I like this following article for it highlights the principle of Genetic Entropy, i.e. loss of variety:
Challenging Fossil of a Little Fish
"In Chen’s view, his evidence supports a history of life that runs opposite to the standard evolutionary tree diagrams, a progression he calls top-down evolution." Jun-Yuan Chen is professor at the Nanjing Institute of Paleontology and Geology
The evolutionary theory would have us believe that we should have more phyla today due to ongoing evolutionary processes. These following timeline graphs highlight the loss of phyla through time:
Origin of Phyla - The Fossil Evidence - Timeline Graph
Deepening Darwin's Dilemma - Jonathan Wells - The Cambrian Explosion - video
Moreover fossils show a fairly extreme conservation of morphological shape throughout time:
Ancient Fossils That Have Not Changed For Millions Of Years - video
THE FOSSILS IN THE CREATION MUSEUM - 1000's of pictures of ancient 'living' fossils that have not changed for millions of years:
Fossils Without Evolution - June 2010
Excerpt: New fossils continue to turn up around the world. Many of them have an amazing characteristic in common: they look almost exactly like their living counterparts, despite being millions of years old,,,
Moreover, the evolutionary myth of +99.9% extinct fossils is false:
The Fossil Record - The Myth Of +99.9% Extinct Species - Dr. Arthur Jones - video
"Stasis in the Fossil Record: 40-80% of living forms today are represented in the fossil record, despite being told in many text books that only about 0.1% are in this category. The rocks testify that no macro-evolutionary change has ever occurred. With the Cambrian Explosion complex fish, trilobites and other creatures appear suddenly without any precursors. Evidence of any transitional forms in the fossil record is highly contentious."
Paul James-Griffiths - Dr. Arthur Jones
Further notes on the pervasiveness of Entropy in the universe:
Refutation Of Oscillating Universe - Michael Strauss PhD. - video:
Evidence For Flat Universe - Boomerang Project
A 'flat universe', which is actually another surprising very finely-tuned 'coincidence' of the universe, means this universe, left to its own present course of accelerating expansion due to Dark Energy, will continue to expand forever, thus fulfilling the thermodynamic equilibrium of the second law to its fullest extent (entropic 'Heat Death' of the universe).
The Future of the Universe
Excerpt: After all the black holes have evaporated, (and after all the ordinary matter made of protons has disintegrated, if protons are unstable), the universe will be nearly empty. Photons, neutrinos, electrons and positrons will fly from place to place, hardly ever encountering each other. It will be cold, and dark, and there is no known process which will ever change things. --- Not a happy ending.
Of old You laid the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the work of Your hands. They will perish, but You will endure; Yes, they will all grow old like a garment; Like a cloak You will change them, And they will be changed. But You are the same, And Your years will have no end.
Moreover there actually is 'physical' evidence that Christ overcame 'entropy':
General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Entropy and The Shroud Of Turin - video
Intelligent Design - The Anthropic Hypothesis
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