In Upper Egypt, along the west bank of Nile River, where Esna is located at 55 km south of LUXOR city. Esna is a city that demonstrates how archaeological layers build up over time; it is a homeland of treasures of world renowned Greek – Roman monuments.
From ancient Egyptian to Greek – Roman era, followed by Fatimid era, then Ottoman and finally the era of Mohamed Ali pasha. They represent some of the finest examples of mankind’s early civilization and it is ranked among its greatest cultural achievements.
This unique cultural heritage continues to attract visitors from all over the world in ever-growing numbers.
Nevertheless, Esna today is somehow a trade and farming town, with a weaving industry, it suffers from severe dreadful conditions of the physical environment and basic services for inhabitants.
Furthermore, the high level of subterranean water at Esna was caused by the construction of the Esna barrages, which raise water levels behind them. The water has slightly affected the walls and foundation of the khnum temple which belong to the Greek – Roman era.

Moreover, because of the ground level of the city of Esna which is nine meters higher than the level of the temple, the absence of a drainage system in the city had also added to the rising subterranean water level . . Therefore, it’s worth aiming to develop Esna city via exploiting its special location and create tourists attractions which leads to increasing employment opportunities, initiating to higher rates of quality of life for inhabitants. Taking into consideration that such development procedures will be environment-friendly.
In order to respond to these trends, the Ministry of Housing, General Organization of Physical Planning and Luxor Governorate had nominated our firm to participate in such development plan in 2010, for the study of a Comprehensive Development Plan for the City of Esna The Structure Plan, Heritage Plan and Investment Projects produced as components of the project address
ways to accommodate the projected growth in population, tourism and agriculture, while preserving and enhancing the antiquities.

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