Renata Salecl, Marija Mojca Pungerčar, Ksenija Vidmar Horvat

Okrogla miza

V umetnosti in kulturi je pluralnost zaposlitvenih statusov obsežna, ima dolgo tradicijo in jo najdemo tako v javnih in zasebnih zavodih, društvih ali združenjih, kjer imajo nekateri stalno zaposlitev, drugi začasno, tretji pa delajo kot samozaposleni. Status samozaposlenih v kulturi se je včasih imenoval status svobodnega kulturnega delavca (!). Predpostavka te svobode je, da institucionalni okviri dušijo ustvarjalnost, ker jo disciplinirajo. Biti sama svoja, od nikogar last in imeti čas in prostor za ustvarjanje, ki ga nihče ne ovira in omejuje, je v umetnosti posebna vrednota, zato je samozaposlenost v kulturi status s tradicijo. Kljub samostojnosti je vključeval uveljavljanje osnovnih socialnih pravic, ki so omogočale vsaj delno neodvisnost od trga in zagotavljale neko mero varnosti. Postfordistični čas je kulturne vzorce zaposlovanja posplošil na vsa področja dela. Svobodna izbira statusa v sedanjem globalnem ekonomskem in družbenem režimu implicira odgovornost za izbiro, ki predpostavlja tveganje, da bo napačna, ker pa jo sprejmejo ljudje sami, postane morebitna napaka v izbiri njihova lastna odgovornost. Tako je umetnost umeščena v polje zasebnega, individualnega, kot da z javnim nima nič opraviti. Delo umetnic in kulturnih delavk bi v tem smislu lahko povezali s konceptom »nedela« skrbstvenih delavk, kjer je skrb produkt ženske narave, umetniški izraz pa stvar užitka in notranje nuje, zato ni uvrščeno v plačljivo delo.

Takšno razumevanje ima v sedanjem času usodne posledice, saj fleksibilnost zaposlitvenega trga določa prekarno eksistenco, s čimer Paolo Virno* označuje nepredvidljivo vsakdanje življenje brez vsakršne varnosti. Ta permanentna ranljivost se pojavlja v vsakem delu, tudi na področjih, kjer je bila redistribucijska vloga države zelo pomembna. Na vseh teh področjih uvajanje trga intenzivno poteka zadnji dve desetletji in pomeni predvsem strukturiranje teh področij (tudi umetnosti) kot tržne dejavnosti, da bi »stanjšali« državo. Svoboda in ustvarjalnost sta v novem sistemu še bolj poudarjeni, ker naj bi prinašali osebno rast, energijo, zadovoljstvo, ki vodijo v najvišjo samoizpolnitev. Če jih želimo racionalizirati z zahtevami po plačilu in socialni varnosti, jih bomo za vedno izgubili. Sedanji čas se po prepričanju, da za umetnike revščina pravzaprav pomeni le še večjo ustvarjalnost, vrača v temne čase minulih stoletij. (Vesna Leskošek)

* Intervju s Paolom Virnom v spletni reviji Open 17, z naslovom A Precarious Existence: Vulnerability in Public Domain. Dostopno na: classic.skor.nl/artefact-4172-en.html (19. 8. 2011).

Renata Salecl, Ksenija Vidmar Horvat in Marija Mojca Pungerčar bodo razpravljale o svobodi, izbiri, revščini in spremembah, ki jih delavke doživljajo v vsakdanjem življenju oziroma o prekarnosti njihove eksistence. Pogovor bo povezovala Vesna Leskošek.
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Renata Salecl, Marija Mojca Pungerčar, Ksenija Vidmar Horvat

Round Table

In art and culture, there is a vast plurality of employment statuses that has a long tradition and is detectible in public and private institutions, societies and associations, in all of which some people are permanently employed, others part-time, whilst some workers are self-employed. The status of being self-employed in culture used to be called that of being a freelance artist in culture(!). This independence is presumed on the basis that institutional frameworks suffocate creativity by disciplining it. To be oneself, not a possession of anybody, and to have the time and space for the creative process that is not hindered or restrained has a special value in art; thus, self-employment in culture is a status with a tradition. In spite of its independence, said status once included basic social rights that allowed at least partial autonomy from the market and a certain degree of security. The Post-Fordist period generalised the patterns of employment in culture to all areas of work. The free choice of one’s status in today’s global economic and social regime implies the responsibility for that choice and assuming the risk that it might be a wrong choice. Due to the fact that it is made by individuals themselves, the eventual mis-choice becomes their responsibility. Thus art has been placed under the responsibility of the private individual, as if it had nothing to do with being public. In this sense, the work of women artists and cultural workers could be related to the concept of the “non-work” of caregivers, where care is a product of a woman’s nature, just as here, artistic expression, being a matter of pleasure and an inner urge, is also therefore not to be classified as work to be paid for.

In modern times, the consequences of such an understanding are lethal because the flexibility of the labour market determines a precarious existence, by which Paolo Virno* indicates an existence without predictability or security. This permanent vulnerability occurs in every field of work, including those fields where the state’s redistribution role was once very important. In all these areas, the market economy has been intensively introduced over the last two decades, resulting in particular in the structuralisation of said areas (including art) into market economies in order to thin down the state. The new system promotes the ideas of freedom and creativity because they are supposed to provide personal growth, energy and satisfaction, which results in one’s ultimate self-realisation. If we want to inject them with rationality, by demanding payment and social security, we will lose them forever. Given the belief that, for artists, poverty actually means more creativity, these modern times are reaching back into the dark ages of centuries gone by.

* Interview with Paolo Virno published in the online journal Open 17 under the title “A Precarious Existence: Vulnerability in the Public Domain”. Available at: classic.skor.nl/artefact-4172-en.html (accessed August 19, 2011).

Renata Salecl, Ksenija Vidmar Horvat and Marija Mojca Pungerčar will discuss freedom, choice, poverty and changes experienced by women workers in everyday life and the precariousness of their existence. The discussion will be moderated by Vesna Leskošek.

cityofwomen.org

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