L'Histoire du Soldat is a musical gem of early modern, 20th century classical music.

Written by Stravinsky for a group of poor, unemployed artists and musicians during the crisis just after the first world war. In its form as a travelling musical theatre production it is the first of its kind. Stravinsky based his composition on an old Russian fairy tale of a soldier selling his violin (soul) to the devil.

With this interdisciplinary work Stravinsky has been influenced for the first time by contemporary music of his generation such as the recently introduced phenomenon of Jazz. He breaks with his Russian music legacy. This work fits into the series of his masterpieces The Firebird, Les Noces, Petrouchka and Le Sacre du Printemps. With L'Histoire Stravinsky strived for a mobile production that could be played at any location using the local cultural context. This one of a kind, innovative and much less narrative version of L'Histoire was created in July 2011 in Yogyakarta in Indonesia, with prominent Javanese dancers.

Gerard Mosterd who has been an active theatre maker and lecturer in Indonesia for over ten years focused on a contemporary and more abstract version of l'Histoire with elements of the old Javanese royal court dance tradition intertwined. Complex and dynamic music such as that of Stravinsky has never been interpreted by Javanese dancers before who traditionally are masters of slow, subtle movement.

The Faustian based morality tale by Ramuz is interpreted by the world famous Javanese dancers Martinus Miroto and Eko Supriyanto. Both are known for their collaboration with acclaimed director Peter Sellars. Eko and Miroto starred in the acclaimed film Opera Jawa by film director Garin Nugroho. Eko Supriyanto toured as a dancer with the U.S. pop icon Madonna and collaborated with Samoan director Lemi Ponifasio. Actress Sri Qadariatin and actor Jamaluddin Latif are prominent members of the avant-garde theatre group Teater Garasi from Yogyakarta. Qadariatin performed worldwide a lead role in Bob Wilson's I La Galigo and Persephone.

Music composition: Igor Stravinsky (1918)
Libretto: Ferdinand Ramuz
Director: Gerard Mosterd
Narrator: Jamaluddin Latif
Dance: Martinus Miroto, Eko Supriyanto, Sri Qadariatin.
Light / costume / set design / props: Gerard Mosterd
Conductor: Arjan Tien

Advisor: Didik Nini Thowok and Karolien de Pauw
Choreography: Gerard Mosterd in collaboration with Eko Supriyanto, Martinus Miroto,
Sri Qadariatin and Jamaluddin Latif.
Live music performance: DCMC
Indonesia, August 2011.See kantorpos.nl for more info.

This recording is intended for presenting to programmers.
It's a low quality HD handycam recording, shot at distance.
It does not grab all the rich and detailed expression contained in this performance.
For a close up impression of the expressive performance quality please visit this picture album on facebook: facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.10150441776416152.352323.576336151&type=1

Programme Note
BRIEF PROGRAMME NOTE

The main protagonists are the Soldier, who possesses a violin, and the Devil, with whom he exchanges it in return for a book which will show him how to obtain all that he can desire. Other parts are the Narrator, an observing cynic and the Princess. Once the contract has been made, the Devil is hard to evade. Life has a habit of returning to beginnings.

FULL PROGRAMME NOTE

The story of Faust, the man who sold his soul to the devil in exchange for riches, power, youth wisdom - the legend takes various forms - strikes resonances in every heart. Underlying it is the Biblical text, "What shall it profit a man if he gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?" In real life, it is not so much a matter of gaining "the whole world" as of the day-to-day decisions when we are tempted to compromise between ideals and ease or expediency - to do something that instinct says is not quite right (though it may not be very wrong) for the sake of quick reward. Stravinsky's lifelike Faust - the Soldier in ‘The Soldier's Tale’ - is closer to our everyday experience than the heroic Faust of Marlowe and Goethe. HE is not vastly ambitious. He is not faced with one tremendous decision - to barter his fiddle, to have a go at winning the ‘Princess’, to gamble away his remaining cash, to cross a forbidden frontier and see his mother again - almost casually. He gets good advice (from the Narrator) and gets bad advice (from the Devil). He gets cheated. It seems almost unfair that, at the end, the Devil should win.

But then ‘The Soldier’s Tale’ is not a cut-and-dried, consistent allegory. (“Do not forget,” Bernard Shaw once wrote, “that an allegory is never quite consistent except when it is written by someone without dramatic faculty.”) The story was distilled from Alexander Afanasiev’s collection of Russian tales, which had been the source for several other Stravinsky works. One of them was ‘Renard’, composed in 1916 – a twenty-minute dramatic piece for fifteen players, four singers, and “clowns, dancers and acrobats.” It was not staged until 1922. ‘Renard’ was a smaller work than the big-orchestra ballets that preceded it, but it was still unwieldy. Stravinsky’s thoughts turned to something more practicable.

IN 1918, he was in Switzerland, cut off by the Great War from his Russian family estates and the royalties of his Russian publishers. The Diaghilev Ballet, which did his ‘Firebird’, ‘Petrushka’, and ‘Rite of Spring’, was stranded in Lisbon, without a prospect of further engagements. In a discussion with the Swiss writer C.F.Ramuz (who had made French versions of Several Stravinsky texts), an idea occurred: “Why not do something quite simple? Why not write together a piece that would need no vast theatre or large public? Something with two or three characters and a handful of instrumentalists.” And ‘The Soldier’s Tale’ came into being.

Stravinsky translated Afanasiev stories about soldiers and the Devil to Ramuz (who knew no Russian), and the scenario was worked out between them. Eventually, the collaborators decided on four characters: actors for the Soldier, the Narrator, and the Devil, and a dancer for the Princess. There would be only seven instrumentalists: representatives of high and low woodwinds, brasses, and strings (clarinet and bassoon, cornet and trombone, violin and double-bass) and a percussionist. Stravinsky bought a set of drums and learned to play them. The staging would be simple: a tiny stage raised on a central platform (the original one, Stravinsky said, was about the size of two armchairs), with the Narrator seated on one side of it and the band on the other.

It would be a compact, portable show, easy to tour. The first performance, conducted by Ernest Ansermet, was given in the Lausanne Municipal Theatre in September 28th, 1918, and it was a success. But the proposed tour had to be dropped: the participants one after another succumbed to the post-war epidemic of Spanish flu. In London in 1920, Ansermet conducted the concert suite that Stravinsky had extracted from the piece, but ‘The Soldier’s Tale’ was not staged again until 1924. That year, it was produced in several cities: Berlin, Paris (by Diaghilev), Frankfurt, and Wiesbaden (conducted by Klemperer) among them. Ever since then, the performances have been frequent, and ‘The Soldier’s Tale’ remains as fresh as ever. Every young stage director, every enthusiastic music-theatre ensemble wants to tackle it.

It is worth recalling some of the things that went into its making. One was a dream: Stravinsky dreamt of a young gypsy sitting by the roadside and playing a fiddle to her child with long sweeps of the bow. On waking, he recalled the motif she played, and used it in the ‘Little Concert’ section (played by the Soldier after he regains his fiddle); the score includes the instruction “with the full length of the bow.” Another was a memory: of standing in a street in Seville with Diaghilev and listening to a “bullfight” band – cornet, trombone, and bassoon – playing a ‘pasodoble’ (a lilting Hispanic dance). Then a big band came blaring down the street and drowned out the little one. This lies behind the ‘Royal March’.

There are Lutheran chorales: There is a tango – a sexy dance that was becoming popular in Switzerland. And there is jazz: Stravinsky had never heard any jazz, but Ansermet had come back from an American tour with some sheet music, and from it Stravinsky – in the ‘Ragtime’ and ‘The Soldier’s Tale’ – imagined what it might sound like. From folk tales (which are mirror of human experience), from dreams and memories, from diverse musical sources that span the ages, an inspired work was created – international, timeless. Its masterly economy, conciseness, and precision have made it unfading. It can be enjoyed and re-enjoyed on many levels – for its tunes, its bright instrumental colour, its cunning formal structures, and its curiously moving drama. They all work together. The piece gets under its listener’s skin. On the simplest level, the fiddle represents the Soldier’s soul and the percussion the machinations of the Devil. In the final number, ‘The Devil’s Triumphal March’, violin and percussion start out together. At the chilling close, the violin fades out, and only a dry drumming is heard.

Andrew Porter

Javanese tour list in 2011:

Thursday 4th of August at 8 p.m. :
Kampung Tembi, in Yogyakarta Selatan

Friday 5th of August at 8 p.m. :
Gedung Societet, in Yogyakarta

Friday 6th of August at 8 p.m. :
Gedung Societet, in Yogyakarta

Friday 12th of August at 8 p.m. :
Taman Budaya Arena, in Solo

Saturday 13th of August at 8 p.m. :
Taman Budaya Arena, in Solo

Monday 15th of August at 8 p.m. :
Auditorium Radio Republik Indonesia, in Semarang

Wednesday 17th of August at 8 p.m. :
Auditorium Radio Republik Indonesia, in Semarang

Friday 19th of August at 8 p.m. :
Erasmus Huis, in Jakarta

Saturday 20th of August at 8 p.m. :
Erasmus Huis, in Jakarta

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