In this video we're looking at the doubling up 1:1:1: spelling rule as in: put - putting, big-bigger, stop-stopped, fat- fatten, run - running, thin - thinner, sit - sitting, get - getting, stop-stopping, hot-hotter, swim - swimming...

Do you know why we double up the end consonant?

Before I explain let's look at some spelling language we need for this rule: Do you know what vowels, consonants, suffixes , syllables are?

vowels- a.e.i.o.u (y is sometimes classed as a vowel)

consonants - b,c,d,f,g,k,l,m,n,p,r,s,t,w,y,zsuffixes are little words added to the end of a word: -ing, -s, -ment, -ed...

syllables: are bits of a word broken down with a vowel in them, and different bits can be stressed.
qua/li/fi/ca/tion begin, swimming

Let's look at those words again:

put - putting, big-bigger, stop-stopped, fat- fatten, run - running, thin - thinner, sit - sitting, get - getting, stop-stopping, hot-hotter, swim - swimming...

Do you know why we double up the last consonant?

Say these words to yourself - put/sit/run/swim/thin/get - notice they all have one syllable sounds

Notice they all have one consonant at the end of the word.

Notice they all have one vowel next to the consonant: vowel + consonant

With the 1:1:1 rule we usually double the end consonant when we add the following vowel suffixes (-ing,-ed,-er, -est, -en, -ish, -ery, -y)

put - putting, big-bigger, stop-stopped, fat- fatten, run - running, thin - thinner, sit - sitting, get - getting, stop-stopping, hot-hotter, swim - swimming...

So words of one syllable ending in one vowel + one consonant double the last letter before a vowel suffix.

!!! We don't double up the final consonant when it's w, x or y

But that's not all:

*** We also double up some words that are more than one syllable when the last syllable is stressed.

prefer (prefer) - preferring/preferred (but not preference)

begin (begin) - beginning, beginner

regret (regret) regrettable, regretting

forbid - forbidden

commit - committed

refer - referred (but not reference stressed)

Remember there are always exceptions to English spelling rules!!!

Focus can be spelled with either a single or a double s focused/focussed, focusing/focussing

A lot of spellers don't know this rule but just see what looks right- "we always say that looks strange". But it's always good to know why spelling is the way it is and the rules.

Which of these are right? Use your visual memory for what looks right or the rule.

1. shoper or shopper?

2. foxes or foxxes?

3. beginner or beginer?

4. fatest or fattest?

5. sleeping or sleepping?

6. forgettable or forgetable?

7. quicker or quickker?

8. planning or planing?

9. budgetting or budgeting?

10. quizzed or quized?

Answers

1. shop - shoper or shopper?

2. fox - foxes or foxxes? (add -es to x rule)

3. begin - beginner or beginer?

4. fat - fatest or fattest?

5. sleeping - sleeping or sleepping? (2 vowels before final consonant so 'p' not doubled)
6. forget - forgettable or forgetable ?

7. quick - quicker or quickker? (2 consonants at end so 'k' not doubled.)
8. plan - planning or planing?

9. budget - budgetting or budgeting? (stress is on the bud so 't' not doubled)

10. quiz - quizzed or quized?

How did you do? Remember spelling only improves if you practise is so

go to my website howtospell.co.uk and sign up for more free spelling lessons.

Thanks for watching and listening. If you want to know more about the Language of Spelling go to my video on it and check out the Adding -es to words rule.

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