Many early psychological studies of learning from film and particularly TV found this medium to be inferior to text. Studies included comparisons between reading newspaper reports and watching TV news. In these early studies the memory retention was always stronger for those who read the reports. This was shown to be linked mainly to the ability of the individual to control the speed of the delivery of information. When you read you can pause at any time, which was not possible with classroom based TV and Film. This has changed with the advent of online video which can be paused and rewound easily. More recent studies now see no difference in memory retention between the two media, video and text. Research also examines the idea that cognitive overload may occur because the viewer has to process audio and visuals at the same time. Careful design of the film can elevate this. For instance signaling clearly where the focus of the audio is in terms of the video image will help the viewer merge the two. However, too much information, or information that is superfluous, can reduce learning. The growth of online video in sites like YouTube has greatly improved the opportunity for the creation, distribution and education of potential learners.

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