During the fall of 2012, a heated technical discussion regarding asynchronous programming occurred on python-ideas. One of the outcomes of this discussion was Tulip, an asynchronous programming API for Python 3.3, spearheaded by Guido van Rossum. A lesser known outcome was PyParallel: a set of modifications to the CPython interpreter that allows Python code to execute concurrently across multiple cores.

Twisted, Tulip, Gevent, Stackless/greenlets and even node.js are all variations on the same pattern for achieving "asynchronous I/O": non-blocking I/O performed on a single thread. Each framework provides extensive mechanisms for encapsulating computational work via deferreds, coroutines, generators and yield from clauses that can be executed in the future when a file descriptor is ready for reading or writing.

What I found troubling with all these solutions is that so much effort was being invested to encapsulate future computation (to be executed when a file descriptor is ready for reading or writing), without consideration of the fact that execution is still limited to a single core.

PyParallel approaches the problem in a fundamentally different way. Developers will still write code in such a way that they're encapsulating future computation via the provided APIs, however, thanks to some novel CPython interpreter modifications, such code can be run concurrently across all available cores.

This talk will cover the history behind PyParallel, the numerous novel techniques invented to achieve concurrent interpreter execution, real-life examples of PyParallel in action (multi-threaded HTTP servers, parallel task decomposition). It will detail the approach PyParallel takes towards facilitating asynchronous I/O compared to competing libraries like Twisted and Tulip. It will also provide insight into the direction of PyParallel in the future, including things like LLVM integration via Numba/Blaze to further improve computational performance.

Link to the deck being presented: speakerdeck.com/trent/pyparallel-how-we-removed-the-gil-and-exploited-all-cores-1

Trent Nelson

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