In this tutorial we’re going to cover how to create APA style citations to many different kinds of sources.

As a refresher, let’s remind ourselves what APA style is.
Created by the American Psychological Association, APA style consists of guidelines for citing sources in your paper as well as formatting your paper in general.

Most students have the most difficulty creating full citations in a works cited page.
The works cited page requires a reference to each source you use, and each reference must be properly formatted and listed in alphabetical order.
The challenge is that each type of source – books, articles, and websites – must be cited a little bit differently.
Today we’ll go through the major sources you may need to cite and see how these requirements differ.

A general book citation must include the authors’ last names and first initials, the year of publication, the title of the book in italics, and the publisher location and name.
Notice that the title of the book is not capitalized.

Additional information is needed if your book has an editor or is a second or third edition.
If you just want to cite one chapter, you need to say which book it is in and the page numbers.

Articles in scholarly journals are cited a little differently because of how they are published and organized.
The title of the article is in regular font and not capitalized, but the title of the journal is in italics and is capitalized.
The volume number is also in italics.

Other types of articles include magazines, newspapers, and book reviews.
For magazines and newspapers, include the specific date of publication.
Newspaper page numbers are also formatted as they appear in the newspaper.
Use square brackets to indicate that your source is a book review, and include the title of the book.

If you cite an encyclopedia entry, include the volume and page numbers.
Use parentheses to indicate whether you are citing a doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis.

Many sources we use today are online.
A website citation is similar to a book or article citation, but you must include the most recent date it was updated as well as the URL where it is located.

If you are citing an online journal article, it will often have a Digital Object Identifier or DOI. You should use this rather than a URL where possible because it is more stable.
To cite just one part of a website, include the title of the specific page and indicate that it is in the larger website.
You can also cite other electronic media such as podcasts, but always indicate what type of media you are citing.

You may want to cite a non-print source like a movie, TV show, or music recording.
With these sources, remember that the names you must cite will not simply be authors but rather producers, directors, studios, distributors, writers, songwriters, and music labels.
This information can be more difficult to locate than an author.

To see more guidelines on how to cite and format in APA style, visit the Purdue Online Writing Lab at
Thanks for watching, and good luck writing your papers!


Loading more stuff…

Hmm…it looks like things are taking a while to load. Try again?

Loading videos…