Biology

Translational Regenerative Medicine
Jennifer Elisseeff, John Hopkins University

Regenerative medicine is a field that aims to rebuild and repair damaged tissues and organs in the body. Human development provides a paradigm and clues that can be harnessed for designing strategies to engineer tissues. During the amazing process of development a single cell multiplies, cell migrate and organize, and ultimately a complex organism is created. The basic building blocks of tissues and organs in our body are cells and the extracellular matrix. Just as the Nature versus Nurture debate plays a role in people’s lives from a sociological perspective, the genetic identity of cells (nature) and local extracellular matrix environment (nurture) present in tissues is critical in development and can be applied to directing tissue repair. The cells in a tissue are constantly interacting with and modulating their local environment while just as importantly the extracellular matrix stores and provides architectural, historical and current environmental information. The basic building blocks of our bodies and the consideration of nature versus nurture is the foundation of biomaterials design in tissue engineering. Biomaterials can be engineered, through physical, chemical and biological means, to provide a temporary scaffold where cells can be directed or coaxed into performing the task of building new tissue and directing repair. Basic research is then required to understand fundamentals of cell-biomaterial interactions while at the same time translational work in collaboration with clinicians is necessary to ensure appropriate design considerations for each specific local application. Ultimately, to treat patients a combination of cellular, biological, and physical signals must be presented for therapeutic impact.

References:

1. Coburn, J.M., et al., Bioinspired nanofibers support chondrogenesis for articular cartilage repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012. 109(25): p. 10012-7.

2. Deans, T.L., et al., Regulating synthetic gene networks in 3D materials. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012. 109(38): p. 15217-22.

3. Hillel, A.T., et al., Photoactivated composite biomaterial for soft tissue restoration in rodents and in humans. Sci Transl Med, 2011. 3(93): p. 93ra67.

4. Hwang, N.S., et al., In vivo commitment and functional tissue regeneration using human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2008. 105(52): p. 20641-6.

5. Sharma, B., et al., Human cartilage repair with a photoreactive adhesive-hydrogel composite. Sci Transl Med, 2013. 5(167): p. 167ra6.

6. Wang, D.A., et al., Multifunctional chondroitin sulphate for cartilage tissue-biomaterial integration. Nat Mater, 2007. 6(5): p. 385-92.

# vimeo.com/81150856 Uploaded 43 Plays / / 0 Comments Watch in Couch Mode

Follow

Biology

Kavli Frontiers of Science Plus

This channel contains session presentations that cover biological topics from the Kavli Frontiers of Science symposium series of the National Academy of Sciences.

For additional symposium information, please visit our web site (nasonline.org/kfos).

Browse This Channel

Shout Box

Channels are a simple, beautiful way to showcase and watch videos. Browse more Channels. Channels