Artificial Intelligence: Past, Present and Future Development
Dwi H. Widyantoro, Institute of Technology, Bandung
Artificial Intelligence (AI) was first coined during summer workshop in 1956 and is regarded as one of the newest fields in science and engineering. It attempts to build intelligent entitities that can think humanly (rationally) and/or act humanly (rationally). The history of AI reveals the cycles of optimism period followed by the period of disillusionment. AI major areas include searching-based problem-solving techniques, (common-sense) knowledge representation, reasoning, planning, learning, communicating, perceiving and acting. Recent advancement encompasses a wide variety of subfields and are relevant to any intellectual task. The applications of AI can be developed for almost every field of human endeavour. A notable classical examples are expert systems such as DENDRAL (for inferring molecular structures), MYCIN (for medical diagnosis) and R1 (for configuring new computer systems). A popular example in game playing is DEEP BLUE, a chess computer that defeated grandmaster Kasparov. Intelligent Personal Assistants (e.g., NOW & SIRI), Machine Translation, Robotic Vehicles (e.g., Google’s self-driving car) and open domain Question Answering Systems (e.g., IBM’s WATSON) represent the most recent advancement of AI applications that have gained significant progress. Predictions about the future of AI have diverse positions in terms of whether human-like computer capacity can be achieved and if so, how long it would take to attain it. Arguments for and against superintelligent machines have been around for years and remain inconclusive. In spite of the debate, there is an agreement that the possible consequences of AI research and technology that could lead to a totally different future must be carefully taken into account.
Background Review Article:
Moor, James. "The Dartmouth college artificial intelligence conference: the next fifty years." AI Magazine 27.4 (2006): 87.