Selective Antitumour Compound from Garcinia cowa Roxb.
Fatma Sri Wahyuni
Faculty of Pharmacy, Andalas University, Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia,
The Sumatran forest is one of the most diverse in the world and has a vast number
of species, many of which are endemic and unique. Such large number of species
ensures high chemical diversity and therefore enhances the potential of discovering
biologically active compounds preferably those having unique and new mechanism
of therapeutic action. Among of these plants, special attention is paid to genus
Garcinia (Guttiferae). This genus has been extensively investigated from
phytochemical and biological point of view. Prenylated xanthones, triterpenes and
biflavonoids have been isolated from this genus. The alcoholic extract of Garcinia
species were reported to have wide range biological activities such as antiinflammatory,
antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxicity activities.
Fourteen extracts from 8 species of this genus had been screened for their
cytotoxicity and nitric oxide activities. Based on this results, Garcinia cowa has been
choosen for further study since it gave positive test on those assays and had
specific activity to NCI-H460 (lung cancer cell line). A bioassay guided isolation of
the stem bark methanolic extract of Garcinia cowa Roxb, led the discovery of a new
compound, ring reduce tetraprenyltoluquinone (TPTQ) which showed selective
activity with (IC50) in H-460 cancer cell lines is 16.3 ± 3.0 μM. Further investigation
on this compound showed that this compound induced cell cycle arrest in G1 phase.
Single dose of TPTQ 800 mg/kgBB on H-460 xenograft nude mice displayed
moderate antitumor activity as compared with control. This compound slowed the
tumor growth by 5 days.