We uncovered that during sepsis in patients with major burns, neutrophils can move spontaneously in the absence of any chemoattractants. Importantly, this neutrophil phenotype does not occur in burn patients in the absence of sepsis. The results of our study challenge the current dogma that innate immune responses triggered by systemic inflammation or infections cannot be distinguished from each other (e.g. Nature, 2010, 464:104-7). The spontaneous migration of neutrophils in the absence of chemoattractants is distinct from all well known modes of neutrophil migration: chemotaxis, chemokinesis, fugetaxis, or retrotaxis, which all depend on the presence of a chemokine in the media surrounding the neutrophils. 78. Jones CN, Moore M, Dimisko L, Alexander A, Ibrahim A, Hassell BA, Warren HS, Tompkins RG, Fagan SP, Irimia D. Spontaneous Neutrophil Migration Patterns during Sepsis after Major Burns, 2014, PLOS One, in press.