Val describes some of the atrocities inflicted on the Kaunas ghetto population. He describes the burning of the hospital in October 1941 with staff and patients inside. In the Big Action 3 weeks later 10,000 people were taken away and shot, including 7 members of Val's family. In the Children's Action of Spring 1944 all the children, sick and elderly were murdered. Val describes the impact this had on the ghetto population, particularly when they discovered their killers were not German soldiers but their Lithuanian neighbours who had volunteered to join the Nazis. He explains the effect that his memories still have on him.