The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Trans-Antarctic_Expedition), led by Sir Ernest Shackleton, failed to reach its exploration objectives, but did allow groups of scientists to spend many months in the Antarctic, where they made careful observations of the weather. The expedition records have not been published or systematically analysed, but many have been preserved in the archives of the Scott Polar Research Institute (spri.cam.ac.uk/).
Red dots mark the route and observations from the Endurance, as well as sea-ice drift and boat journeys after she sank - including the voyage of the James Caird. Blue dots mark the voyage and drift of the Aurora. Black dots are from the rescue expeditions on the Emma and the Yelcho. The background weather data shown (sea-ice, winds, temperatures and pressures) are from a scout version of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis using the observations from the expedition (esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/20thC_Rean/); small yellow dots mark the pressure observations available to the reanalysis, grey fog masks the regions where the reanalysis weather estimates are very uncertain (because we have too few nearby pressure observations).
We are still missing some of the observations: Weddell-Sea party observations for 1916, Aurora temperature observations for part of 1915, and all the observations from the land-base at Cape Evans, are yet to be found. (And it's possible that records from the rescue expeditions on the Southern Sky and the Instituto de Pesca No. 1, and the Ross-Sea party relief expedition on the Aurora, still exist somewhere).
Created at NERSC (nersc.gov).