Ranching on western lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and US Forest Service provides little in the way of economic benefit and food production. At the same time, the cattle through their grazing on these lands contribute to degradation of habitat for several hundred wildlife species. Many of these species are so severely harmed that they have been federally listed as threatened or endangered. Other aspects of ranching, such as roads, fences, and water diversions also harm wildlife. And tens of thousands of free-living animals (wildlife), regarded as threats to livestock, are killed each year by the federal government’s Wildlife Services program and its state counterparts.