"Integrating Simultaneous Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior into Theories of Collective Action"
Xavier Basurto, Esther Blanco, Mateja Nenadovic, Björn Vollan
Science Advances. March 4, 2016
Full article: advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/3/e1501220
This study found that marine protected areas generate both extreme cooperation and extreme competition among fishers. Previous only consider one or the other of these behaviors, but competition and cooperation are not mutually exclusive. Friendly rivalry among fishers is one example of how these seemingly opposing behaviors can coexist.
When these behaviors remain in balance, they can lead to better conservation of marine resources. However if competition among fishers increases while cooperation declines, it could threaten the long term survival of marine protected areas, their biodiversity, and the communities that depend on them.