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If evolution is all about "survival of the fittest", how does cooperation evolve? Living things form cooperative relationships all the time. Research done by applying mathematics to biology is helping us understand the evolution of cooperation. Cooperation has caused some of the major evolutionary steps in the history of life, including the step from single celled creatures to multi-cellular plants and animals.
Here we look at mathematical models of evolution and apply them to the origin of lichen.
This animation applies the the importance of budding for cooperation as outlined here:
Demography, altruism, and the benefits of budding:
Mathematical Models of cooperation:
Kin Selection: sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022519364900384
Direct Reciprocation: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8316296/
Indirect Reciprocation: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10797005/
Network Reciprocation: nature.com/nature/journal/v433/n7023/full/nature03204.html