Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean and have been occupied by different big powers in the history, including Egyptians, Persians, Roman Empire, Venetians and Ottoman. The original islanders considered themselves as the successors of Mycenaean GreeksAfter ruling by Ottoman for more than 3 centuries, Turk population was brought to the island and made up about one-fifth of total Cypriot population. Due to failing of Ottoman Empire, Cyprus was put under British administration in the late 19C. Then, the conflict between Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot have been never stopped and heightened in the 1950s. Cyprus was granted independent from Britain in 1960 but inter-communal violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots continued. In 1974, Turkey invaded and occupied the northern Cyprus, which de facto partitioned the island into two main parts, Cyprus Republic in the south and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in the North. The capital city Nicosia for both states is divided into 2 parts and it is the only remaining divided capital in the 21st century. In 2003, Northern Cyprus unilaterally eased border restrictions, permitting Cypriots to cross between the two sides for the first time in 30 years. And peace talk about reunification relaunched in 2015.
塞浦路斯是地中海第三大的島。 歷史上曾被不同的列強所統治, 包括古埃及, 波斯, 羅馬, 威尼斯及鄂圖曼等, 而島上的原住民認為自己是古希臘人的後裔。16世紀開始塞浦路斯被鄂圖曼統治達三百多年, 令島上的土耳其裔人口大增。 十九世紀末，鄂圖曼帝國開始沒落, 塞浦路斯被安排由英國所管理。1960年塞浦路斯脫離英國獨立，但希臘裔及土耳其裔兩族人民不和加劇，爆發嚴重的種族流血衝突。1974年, 土耳其出兵協助島上北部的土耳其人另立政權, 雖沒被國際社會承認. 但自此後塞島實際一分為南北兩國: 北面的北塞浦路斯土耳其共和國及南面的塞浦路斯共和國。首都尼科西亞亦分為南北兩份, 成為世界現存唯一的分裂首都。 2003年, 北塞浦路斯單方面於尼科西亞開通關卡, 南北塞人民於三十年後可再互通, 亦打開兩方的溝通大門, 2015年南北兩國重啟統談判, 塞浦路斯的統一指日可待。