This is an extract from the documentary 'Knots and Fields' by Andrew Chesher and David Ryan (2010). The full documentary is 75 mins in length and looks at the history and the contemporary relevance of the famous Summer Courses in New Music, which have been held in Darmstadt, Germany since 1946. It was here that composers such as Stockhausen, Boulez and Cage, among many other key figures in modern music, met in the 50s and 60s.

In the early 1950s it was in Darmstadt that musical modernism was be refashioned by a quartet of composers: Stockhausen, Maderna, Nono, and Pierre Boulez, who begins this extract by recalling his first visit to the Summer Course in 1952. Following Boulez, Hans Ulrich Engelmann, who had attended the Courses from the first year in 1946, gives a characterisation of the two Italians, Bruno Maderna and Luigi Nono.

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