Is the term “type design” appropriate for the work of pre-industrial punchcutters? All objects produced throughout history have undoubtedly been designed; however, many industrial design historians have abandoned this term for describing objects preceding the Industrial Revolution. In his ongoing research into Wilhelmine type, Dan attempts to arrive at a definition of type design adequately fitting typefoundries’ internal processes. This is often at odds with their own self-presentation, or the reports of early typographic historians. Norms and standards are common features of industrialisation. German typefounders adopted a number of these in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; from the point of view of designers today, the Universal Baseline may be the most controversial. While they do not seem to have caused designer-frustration on the level Monotype’s unit system later vexed Jan van Krimpen, Germany’s low baselines must have affected the reception of German type abroad. Even Walter Tracy’s brief critique of early 20th century German romans must be partially grounded by the short descenders mandated for certain type sizes.