A tour of Turkey: July 2011.
From the 4th century BC, and possibly much earlier, people excavated and occupied the many underground cities that have been found in the Nevşehir region of Cappadocia. The soft volcanic rock called tufa was carved out to form chambers connected by tunnels on multiple levels deep below the ground. The cities were places of refuge and also, since the tufa insulates well, the temperature remained at about 7-15 degrees C throughout the year, despite an annual range of -20 to 40 degrees above ground.
I made this movie from stills taken with my Panasonic SD800 camcorder during a visit to the Sarhatli underground city near Nevşehir.