Recent epidemics, including Zika virus, Lassa Fever, Ebola, and H1N1 influenza, have highlighted the ways in which infectious disease outbreaks can severely—and at times uniquely—affect the health interests of pregnant women and their offspring. For some pathogens, pregnant women are at significantly higher risk of serious disease and death. Increasingly, efforts are underway to prospectively invest in vaccine development in order to be better equipped to handle emerging epidemic threats in the future. There is an opportunity, now, to forge a path for a more inclusive vaccine R&D agenda that will ensure pregnant women and their offspring fairly benefit from these investments and scientific advancements. To do this will require placing the needs of pregnant women and their offspring squarely in the sights of those who shape R&D priorities, as well as navigating the challenges and ethical complexities of conducting research with pregnant women and when to include them in vaccine campaigns during epidemics.