Neural correlates of produced communicative movement are visible in single trials.
This video shows the first experimental run with the monkey Milo.
Milo is shown at upper left, while the stimuli he sees are depicted at upper right. Milo's gaze trace is superimposed on the stimuli (upper right), but appears to have been systematically offset by a calibration error.
Below, we show measurements of brain activity and of stimulus and behavioral predictors. Brain responses in the facial-movement area within primary motor cortex are shown in green, below: signal *decreases* in IRON-fMRI indicate *increased* neural activity. Lightweight black shows the raw computer-scored facial movement by Milo: Note that it peaks shortly before the green trace hits its minimum.
At the bottom of the lower plot, we show predictions of neural activity based on computer- and human-categorized movement types. Heavy black shows the computer-scored facial movement after convolution with the characteristic IRON-fMRI hemodynamic response function. In heavy red and orange, hand-scored (rather than computer-scored) facial behavior has been convolved with the characteristic IRON-fMRI hemodynamic response function as an alternate means of predicting neural activity ("expressive" movements in orange, "lipsmacks" in red, "mixed/miscellaneous" movement in magenta).