The second CSIS High-Level Forum on U.S. Leadership in Global Health will place a focus on vaccines as instruments of U.S. global leadership in pursuit of security and economic interests at home and abroad, in close enduring partnerships with corporations, foundations, multilateral organizations, and other countries. This conference grows out of the remarkable surge of interest in vaccines in public health efforts worldwide. Last year, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation committed $10 billion to help research, develop, and deliver vaccines over the next ten years, which it christened the Decade of Vaccines. Recent analyses in The Lancet, Nature, Health Affairs, and elsewhere have portrayed vaccines as a ?best buy,? a cost-effective global health tool in a tough fiscal environment. In June, at its first pledging conference, the GAVI Alliance received $4.3 billion in commitments from governments and private donors, surpassing its $3.7 billion target. Along with this growing awareness of the value of vaccines, there has arisen a heightened grasp of the complexities of global immunization efforts. There is uncertainty about continued funding and sustainable programs, shoring up public trust in immunization, bringing current campaigns to a successful conclusion, creating the market conditions for the research and development of new vaccines, and guaranteeing their availability and delivery to those most in need, particularly in unstable and insecure environments.