Columns for GC: Packed and capillary column, column packings and stationary phases, chiral columns. Preparation and care of GC columns. Equivalent columns. Split and split-less injection systems, head space sampling, SPME, pyrolysis, Advances in detection techniques. Introduction to Multidimensional GC and Fast GC. Important applications of GC. • GC Method development and validation: Choice of columns, polarity indices – Kovat’s retention index, McReynold’s constants, resolution of enantiomers. Troubleshooting in GC.