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COMPONENT PARTS - DEMONSTRATION OF FLUID COUPLING WITH THE USE OF A PLASTIC MODEL IN OPERATION AND A TRUCK IN ACTION.
Originally a public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).
Wikipedia license: creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
A fluid coupling or hydraulic coupling is a hydrodynamic or 'hydrokinetic' device used to transmit rotating mechanical power. It has been used in automobile transmissions as an alternative to a mechanical clutch. It also has widespread application in marine and industrial machine drives, where variable speed operation and controlled start-up without shock loading of the power transmission system is essential.
Hydrokinetic drives, such as this, should be distinguished from hydrostatic drives, such as hydraulic pump and motor combinations...
The fluid coupling originates from the work of Hermann Föttinger, who was the chief designer at the AG Vulcan Works in Stettin. His patents from 1905 covered both fluid couplings and torque converters.
A Mr Bauer of the Vulcan-Werke collaborated with English engineer Harold Sinclair of Hydraulic Coupling Patents Limited to adapt the Föttinger coupling to vehicle transmission in an attempt to mitigate the lurching Sinclair had experienced while riding on London buses during the 1920s Following Sinclair's discussions with the London General Omnibus Company begun in October 1926, and trials on an Associated Daimler bus chassis, Percy Martin of Daimler decided to apply the principle to the Daimler group's private cars.
During 1930 The Daimler Company of Coventry, England began to introduce a transmission system using a fluid coupling and Wilson self-changing gearbox for buses and their flagship cars. By 1933 the system was used in all new Daimler Lanchester and BSA vehicles produced by the group from heavy commercial vehicles to small cars. It was soon extended to Daimler's military vehicles. These couplings are described as constructed under Vulcan-Sinclair and Daimler patents.
In 1939 General Motors Corporation introduced Hydramatic drive, the first fully automatic automotive transmission system installed in a mass-produced automobile. The Hydramatic employed a fluid coupling.
The first diesel locomotives using fluid couplings were also produced in the 1930s...
A fluid coupling consists of three components, plus the hydraulic fluid:
The housing, also known as the shell (which must have an oil-tight seal around the drive shafts), contains the fluid and turbines.
Two turbines (fanlike components):
One connected to the input shaft; known as the pump or impeller, primary wheel input turbine
The other connected to the output shaft, known as the turbine, output turbine, secondary wheel or runner
The driving turbine, known as the 'pump', (or driving torus) is rotated by the prime mover, which is typically an internal combustion engine or electric motor. The impeller's motion imparts both outwards linear and rotational motion to the fluid.
The hydraulic fluid is directed by the 'pump' whose shape forces the flow in the direction of the 'output turbine' (or driven torus). Here, any difference in the angular velocities of 'input stage' and 'output stage' result in a net force on the 'output turbine' causing a torque; thus causing it to rotate in the same direction as the pump.
The motion of the fluid is effectively toroidal - travelling in one direction on paths that can be visualised as being on the surface of a torus:
If there is a difference between input and output angular velocities the motion has a component which is circular (i.e. round the rings formed by sections of the torus)
If the input and output stages have identical angular velocities there is no net centripetal force - and the motion of the fluid is circular and co-axial with the axis of rotation (i.e. round the edges of a torus), there is no flow of fluid from one turbine to the other...