This video shows a coronal mass ejection (CME) on the Sun. The hot gas (plasma) is accelerated by the Sun's strong magnetic field dynamics, causing a large loop of plasma to be hurled into space. This particular CME is not perfectly Earth-directed, most of the plasma you see flying off will pass north of the Earth and will most likely not affect the Earth. To give you an idea of the scale of things here: The Sun's diameter is roughly 1.4 million km, so that's 109 times that of our home planet. In it's longest visible extent the column of gas here is ~800,000 km long.

Video from SDO data in the ultraviolet at 304 Å (in other words, what your seeing is the distribution of ionized Helium), covering the time 10:45-14:00 UTC on Jan 5, 2012.

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