India today has the largest dairy herd in the world, both cows and buffalo. To meet growing domestic demand, mainly for milk, India's cow and buffalo populations are increasing. At the same time, global as well as home-grown agribusinesses are making their mark on India, seeking to expand production through industrial style facilities. Beef is also a growing business in India. These developments have multiple impacts for India's food security, natural resources, the cows and buffalo themselves, and the global climate. Part 1 of 2.