The Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and Sprague’s Pipit (Anthus spragueii) are two bird species with over-lapping ranges, both recognized by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as Candidates for listing under the Endangered Species Act. In north central Montana these species have conflicting habitat requirements, making co-management a challenge. The 697,617 acre Ft. Belknap Reservation, located 170 miles north of Billings, MT is within the current ranges of both species, and provides an excellent opportunity for the development of a management plan for mutual species benefit. The Ft. Belknap tribes are historically and economically connected to bison and cattle grazing. Therefore, management actions must be intended to benefit Sage-grouse and Sprague’s Pipit, as well as preserve or increase the economic viability of grazing on the reservation in a practical and cost-effective manner.