This film is about Alzheimer's disease, stigma and medical reductionism.
Disclaimer: this film is the work of the filmmaker alone and does not represent the views of any organization. It is an artistic expression of an important subject. The film explores scientific understandings of Alzheimer's disease as viewed from a philosophical and ethical perspective.
The music is by Dexter Britain. He kindly provides his tracks through common-license. They can be sourced at the Vimeo music store:
1. "The Time To Run" by Dexter Britain (dexterbritain.co.uk)
2. "From Truth" by Dexter Britain (dexterbritain.co.uk)
3. "Perfect I Am Not" by Dexter Britain (dexterbritain.co.uk)
4. "Chasing Time" by Dexter Britain (dexterbritain.co.uk)
5. "Waking Up" by Dexter Britain (dexterbritain.co.uk)
The photographs (other than the doctors and scientists) are of deceased family members of the filmmaker. They all aged differently.
The photographs of the Nuns are not those who took part in David Snowdon's study.
“27” is a new play by BAFTA-award winning writer Abi Morgan and directed by Vicky Featherstone. It is loosely based on the Nun study. You can find out more about this here: nationaltheatrescotland.com/content/default.asp?page=home_27
Special thanks go to Jesse F. Ballenger who has kindly allowed me to quote extensively from his book: 'Self, Senility, and Alzheimer's Disease in Modern America. A history' (published 2006). The Johns Hopkins University Press. If this film has caught your interest I would strongly recommend you read his work. The book can be purchased here: amazon.com/Senility-Alzheimers-Disease-Modern-America/dp/0801882761
Also special thanks to Richard Taylor. I have quoted Richard from two presentations that he has recently given:
1. 'A little bit of Body and a lot of Soul'. Address given by Richard Taylor in New York on 2 May 2012
2. 'Stigmas'. Address given by Richard Taylor at Alzheimer Disease International. London, March 2012.
Richard Taylor has a blog at: richardtaylorphd.com/. His book, 'Alzheimers from the Inside Out' can be purchased here: bestdementiavideosandbooks.com/products_detail.php?ProductID=4
Jesse F Ballenger has a blog called ‘To Conquer Confusion.’ It can be accessed here:
This specific post is worth reading: Ballenger, J. DSM-V: Continuing the Confusion about Ageing, Alzheimer’s and Dementia. H-Madness blog 19 Mar 2010
The audio section on ‘over-diagnosis’ was taken from a two-part Radio 4 ‘Inside Health broadcast .’ The clip included in this film carries the words and voice of Ray Moynihan. The full transcript can be found here: bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01lt2vn
The film opens with the first stanza of ‘Memorandum’ a poem written and read by WS Merwin. Poetry Archive. You can access it here: poetryarchive.org/poetryarchive/singlePoem.do?poemId=15404
The BBC Scotland ident with video static is from 1980. It is a faded memory for the film-maker. It can be sourced at TVArk:
BOOKS included in the film:
1. 'Self, Senility, and Alzheimer's Disease in Modern America. A History.' By Jesse F. Ballenger. 2006. The Johns Hopkins University Press
2. 'The Nun Study: Ageing with Grace.' By David Snowdon. 2001
3. 'Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity.' By Erving Goffman. Prentice-Hall. 1963
4. 'Courage to be.' By Paul Tillich. 1952
5. 'Dementia: Mind, meaning and the person.' By Julian C. Hughes, Stephen J. Louw, Steven R. Sabat. Oxford University Press. 2006
6. 'The Experience of Alzheimer's Disease: Life Through a Tangled Veil.' By Steven R. Sabat. Wiley-Blackwell. 2001
SCIENTIFIC PAPERS included in the film:
1. Angermeyer, M. C., et al Biogenetic explanations and public acceptance of mental illness: systematic review of population studies. The Br J Psychiatry (2011) 199: 367-372
2. Ballard, C. et al. Alzheimer's disease. The Lancet, Volume 377, Issue 9770, Pages 1019 - 1031, 19 March 2011
3. Chaufan, C; Hollister B; Nazareno, N; Fox, P. Medical ideology as a double-edged sword: The politics of cure and care in the making of Alzheimer’s disease. Social Science & Medicine 74 (2012) 788-795
4. Draper, B., Carmelle Peisah, John Snowdon, Henry Brodat Early dementia diagnosis and the risk of suicide and euthanasia Alzheimer’s & Dementia 6 (2010) 75–82. New South Wales, Australia
5. Frances, A. DSM 5 Minor Neurocognitive Disorder. Psychology Today. 16 Feb 2012
6. Giaccone, G. , Thomas Arzberger, Irina Alafuzoff, Safa Al-Sarraj, Herbert Budka, Charles Duyckaerts, on behalf of the BrainNet Europe consortium New lexicon and criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease The Lancet Neurology, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 298 - 299, April 2011
7. Gregory, A., Jichaa, Erin L. Abnerb, Frederick A. Schmitt Preclinical AD Workgroup staging: pathological correlates and potential challenges. Neurobiology of ageing 2011.
8. Gringrich, N. Developing a national Alzheimer’s strategy equal to the epidemic. Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association. Volume 3, Issue 3 , Pages 239-242, July 2007
9. Mattsson, N., David Brax, and Henrik Zetterberg. To Know or Not to Know: Ethical Issues Related to Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease. International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 841941
10. Oksengard AR, Cavallin L, Axelsson R, Andersson C, Nägga K, Winblad B, Eriksdotter-Jönhagen M, Wahlund LO Lack of accuracy for the proposed 'Dubois criteria' in Alzheimer's disease: a validation study from the Swedish brain power initiative. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2010;30(4):374-80.
11. Palmer, K., Backman, L., Winblad, B., Fratiglioni, L., 2008. Mild cognitive impairment in the general population: occurrence and progression to Alzheimer disease. Am. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 16, 603–611.
12. Phelan, J. C., et al Adding moral experience to stigma theory. Social Science & Medicine; 64 (2007)
13. Porteri, C., Samantha Galluzzi, Cristina Geroldi, Giovanni B. Frisoni Diagnosis Disclosure of Prodromal Alzheimer Disease-Ethical Analysis of 2 Cases. Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 2010; 37: 67-75
14. Racine, E., Sarah Waldman, Jarett Rosenberg , Judy Illes; Contemporary neuroscience in the media. Social Science & Medicine 71 (2010) 725e733
15. Reisa A. Sperling et al Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer’s disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease Alzheimer’s & Dementia 7 (2011) 280–292
16. Richards, M., and Brayne, C. What do we mean by Alzheimer’s disease? British Medical journal; 341; 10.1136/bmj.c4670 Published 12 October 2010
17. Richards, Marcus & Hatch, Stephani; Essay: Good news about the ageing brain BMJ 2011; 343
18. Rosow, K., et al.Countrywide strategic plans on Alzheimer's disease: developing the framework for the international battle against Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 2011 Nov;7(6):615-21
19. Thies, W. Stopping a thief and killer: Alzheimer's disease crisis demands greater commitment to research. Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association. Volume 7, Issue 2 , Pages 175-176, March 2011
20. Vincent, J. A., The cultural construction old age as a biological phenomenon: Science and anti-ageing technologies. Journal of Aging Studies 22 (2008) 331–339
21. Wiggins, N. Stop using military metaphors for disease. British Medical Journal. Published 12 Jul 2012. BMJ 2012;345:e4706
22. Williamson T. Defusing the Dementia ‘time bomb’ Mental Health foundation 16 Feb 2012
SELECTED QUOTES (not otherwise referenced):
1. "Amazing the difference a wee shift of stance makes" from 'In Another Light'. By Andrew Greig. Phoenix. 2005
2. "Persons with cognitive challenges ought not to be excluded from conversations about productive ageing despite their disabilities." Peter Whitehouse. Aug 2012.
3. "We must consider the consequences of seeing the person for their cognition alone." Peter J. Gordon. December 2011
From magazines or newspapers:
(a) TIME magazine. Alzheimers: At last, some progress against the most stubborn disease. By Alice Park. 25 Oct 2010
(b) Old Newspaper: The Age of Alzheimer's by Liam Hudson