No 349 (Belgian) Squadron was formed as a Royal Air Force squadron by Belgian personal at RAF Ikeja (near Lagos), Nigeria on 10 November 1942. The squadron was equipped with the Curtiss Tomahawk for local defence duties but the squadron did not become operational as such. The pilots were used for ferrying aircraft to the Middle East instead. The squadron was disbanded in May 1943 and the personnel transferred to the UK. On 5 June 1943 the Squadron was reformed at RAF Station Wittering with the Supermarine Spitfire V and became operational at RAF Station Digby in August 1943. The Squadron moved to southern England to operate over France on bomber escorts and low-level sweeps. In early 1944 it began to train as a fighter-bomber unit and then operated in this role in occupied Europe. During the invasion of Normandy it carried out beachhead patrols and then were used as bomber escorts. In August 1944 the squadron moved to France in the fighter-bomber role, it carried out armed reconnaissance behind enemy positions and attacked targets of opportunity (mainly vehicles). In February 1945 the Squadron returned to England to convert to the Hawker Tempest. This did not go well, conversion was stopped in April, and the Squadron re-gained Spitfire IXs operating from the Netherlands. It moved to Belgium and was disbanded as an RAF Squadron on 24 October 1946 on transfer to the Belgian Air Force, keeping the number.