Two parter that covers some of the basics of python in maya for those who have a bit less technical experience . . .
The first video is about the very basics of how to use a python script (a .py file) in Maya. Super simple, but a bit more confusing than using a .mel script if you're not familiar with it. (In fact, I could actually code in python pretty well for a while before I had fully figured out how to actually use the scripts in Maya:)
The second part (vimeo.com/67580415) covers a few other things about the basics of python in maya like: adding python paths from maya, using "help" and sys.modules to find out some more about what's going on with your scripts, some things about the pyc files, using aliasing, and how you can create packages . . .