Indonesian Biogeography and Biodiversity Mapping System: From Space to Field
Ketut Wikantika, Institut Teknologi Bandung
Earth system generally formed by four components (sub-system); hydrosphere, geosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. These sub-systems are interconnected by processes and cycles such as evaporation, erosion, transpiration, photosynthesis, food chain, carbon cycle and others. Earth’s sub-systems are all dynamic. Change in one part of a sub-system can cause effects in other parts of sub-systems in different scales as well different times. On the other hand biogeography and biodiversity are strongly correlated with Earth system. Distribution of flora and fauna, movement of populations away from their point of origin, vegetation, decreasing species, land use and land cover, changes of ecosystem, distribution of coral reef, increasing sea surface temperature are examples of critical phenomena that should be observed continuously. Indonesia has a variety of biogeographic regions and has one of the most diverse megadiversity in the world. Therefore richness of biogeography and biodiversity over Indonesia’s island and ocean is greatly important to be mapped. One of Earth observing systems which can record, detect, analyze, visualize and model those phenomena within large areas is geospatial approach. The approach such as remote sensing technology can be categorized into three methods; terrestrial, airborne and spaceborne based observations where the platform can be satellite, aircraft (manned and unmanned aerial vehicles) and terrestrial devices. With the geospatial technology, we can create and develop Indonesian Biogeography and Biodiversity GeoDatabase through applying such Geographical Information System (GIS). Furthermore the database can be used as a basis in determining strategic policies by decision makers for Indonesian sustainable development.
Background review articles:
Biodiversity and biogeography of the atmosphere. Ann M. Womack, Brendan J. M. Bohannan and Jessica L. Green. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 2010 365, doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0283, published 27 October 2010.
Dunn RR, et al. (22 co-authors) (2007) Global Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Biodiversity and Biogeography—A New Database and its Possibilities. Myrmecological News 11: 000-000.
Keywords: biogeography, biodiversity, mapping system, geospatial, remote sensing, database