Bruce Rideout, Ph.D. is a pathologist and disease-investigation specialist for the Zoological Society of San Diego (San Diego Zoo and San Diego Safari Park). He is board certified in the specialty of veterinary pathology. Dr. Rideout's responsibilities at the Zoological Society of San Diego include conducting post-mortem necropsy on condors that have died both in captivity and in the field. His conclusion after 20+ years of working with the condor recovery program is that exposure to spent lead ammunition is the only plausible source for the lead found post-mortem in condors that have died from lead toxicosis. No other source of lead has ever been identified as a contributor to the death of a condor except for lead ammunition.