Questions of war and peace are now framed by technological, cultural, and ethical imperatives. From the Gulf War to the Iraq War, the United States perfected new technologies, under the auspices of a ‘revolution in military affairs’, to fight virtuous wars. Technology in the service of virtue gave rise to a new configuration of virtual power, the military-industrial-media-entertainment network. After winning the short battle of ’shock and awe’ in Iraq but losing the long war to bring democracy and peace to the Middle East, the U.S. military began a controversial program to ‘operationalize’ culture as an instrument of counterinsurgency and counterterrorism; anthropologists, political scientists and anthropologists are enlisted in the effort. As war goes virtual and cultural in the name of justice, unintended and tragic consequences result.