After treatment, what signs of myeloma remain in the body? While other patients with other blood cancers have tests for so-called Minimal Residual Disease (MRD), myeloma patients have had no such test. Now, thanks in part to the International Myeloma Foundation’s (IMF) Black Swan Initiative, myeloma researchers from around the world are attempting to answer these questions and develop the right tests for MRD. In this Patient Empowerment Network Ask the Expert video, Dr. Robert Orlowski addresses the current techniques employed for measuring treatment response as well as some of the newer techniques being studied. From PET and MRI scans, to whole genome sequencing of peripheral blood and flow immunophenotyping, myeloma researchers are looking for a consistent, powerful way to let patients know where their disease really stands.