Doris McEwen Harris, McEwen Education Consulting and Curriculum Auditing, United States
The single unit of change in what matters for student learning is an effective teacher. What makes an effective teacher? Teacher and Administrator WILL. How do you design your classroom to ensure attention to “will power?” What are the teaching practices that align with “will power?” It’s intentional. Explore a framework that has been proven to increase student achievement: Social Will (belief), Cultural Will (understanding the population), Organizational Will (infrastructure), and Political Will (courage to act). Ron Edmonds (1979) said it clearly, “We can, whenever and wherever we choose, successfully teach all children whose schooling is of interest to us. We already know more than we need to do that. Whether or not we do it must finally depend on how we feel about the fact that we haven’t so far.” The question remaining is, how do we feel about the fact that there are many students in our charge who are not being successful in their schooling? What is our collective and individual responsibility to change their trajectory? The four wills framework is a distillation of complex educational concepts that can be incorporated into classroom and leadership practices. These four wills are a part of an intricately woven tapestry between administrators, teachers, students, parents, and the community. Explore practical ideas to transform classrooms into learning spaces that address every child and districts into systems for every child, using "will power" that sets systemic and systematic change.
A popular perception suggests that nations with abundant natural resources will ultimately demonstrate stronger economic performance. Studies investigating this perception, however, showed conflicting results. Fossil energy resources abundance (oil), processing capacity of energy resources (oil refining) and use of renewable energy technology from forty five countries, were correlated with four socio-economic indicators. The indicators included the gross national income (GNI) per capita, the global competitiveness index (GCI), the happiness index and the peace index. We demonstrated weak correlations between the crude oil production per capita and GNI per capita (r=0.392, p=0.01) but no correlations were observed between crude oil production and the other indicators. A strong positive correlation was detected between the amount of refined products per capita and GNI per capita (r=+0.875, p
Solar energy is one of the most suitable renewable sustainable energy options with the opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The use of photovoltaic (PV) technology is carbon neutral; however, the manufacturing of panels produces measurable carbon emissions. Recently, Canadian solar panel companies filed a complaint with the Canadian government claiming subsidized PV modules from China were being dumped into Canada and were threatening the domestic industry. In response, import duties were applied to imported Chinese solar equipment. Aside from the trade issues, this study seeks to examine if there is merit in addressing any carbon emission costs to importing from China as compared to manufacturing PV solar modules in Ontario.
Using the CS6X-P PV module as a case study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to evaluate environmental impacts from manufacturing. Two supply chain scenarios were compared to develop environmental and economic costs for PV modules. The carbon emission difference between the current supply chain involving imports of Chinese PV modules into Ontario, Canada and a hypothetical Ontario-based supply chain was calculated to determine a comparative carbon cost. LCA results for the CS6X-P show that when environmental impacts are translated into an economic cost, it is not significant enough to encourage a change in the current supply chain for Ontario-based manufacturing. This study challenges current policies of pricing carbon in Canada.
Philip Walsh, Ryerson University, Canada
Elizabeth Nguyen, Ryerson University, Canada