1. Walmadany Corroboree

    On the 12th of October 2011, the night of the "blue moon", a very special event took place at James Price Point, Walmadany, the site of a proposed LNG hub on the pristine coast line of the remote Kimberley region of Western Australia.

    This celebration was facilitated by Dr Anne Poelina in partnership with Teresa and Joseph Roe. Senior Elders came from all over the Kimberley to share their songs and dances for this corroborree: Lucy Marshall, Jeanie Warbi, Mick Michael (Wiljany), and Paddy Neowarra.

    This celebration was to show the gratitude from senior elders to local custodians in recognition that we must hold the land, (Walmadany), all together, for all of us... as told by Paddy Roe, Nyikina Elder, Custodian and Law Keeper, in 1992. Singers for the Walmadany Nooloo (Corroborree) were Phillip Roe, Mick Michael (Wiljany), and Paddy Neowarra.

    More than 300 Aboriginal and non Aboriginal people danced until sun down to the moon rise to support the Traditional Owners who are promoting the multiple values of the people, land, stories, and songs of the Kimberley, for the present and future generations of the world.

    More than 100+ days protesters are blocking the road to James Price Point, where Woodside is preparing a Gas hub, which will be the 2d biggest in the World !

    Broome, Western Australia, 12 October 2011
    ©Ingetje Tadros

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  2. MOWANJUM Aboriginal Festival, this is the largest traditional corroboree that is open to the general public in Western Australia.

    In the culture of the Worora, Ngarinyin, and Wunumbul tribes, which make up the Mowanjum community outside Derby, Western Australia, the Wandjina is the supreme spirit being.

    The tribes came together early this century at the Kunmunya Presbyterian mission and the government settlement at Munja. Since 1950, they have endured many forced moves, first to Wotjulum, then to the old Mowanjum site and, finally, to the present day Mowanjum site about 15 kilometres outside Derby.

    As with most complex cultures, opinions about creation can differ. According to David Mowaljarlai (dec), a highly respected Mowanjum elder, the Worora, Ngarinyin and Wunumbul people are the three Wandjina tribes. Only these three tribes see the Wandjinas as the true creators of the land. Many other Australian Aboriginal tribes believe that the Dreamtime snake or Rainbow Serpent was the main creative force.

    According to Mowanjum artist Mabel King, during Lai Lai (the creation time), Wallungunder, the "big boss" Wandjina, came from the Milky Way to create the earth and all the people. These first people were the Gyorn Gyorn – what some gudiya (white) people call Bradshaw figures, named after the gudiya to first see them in 1891. The Gyorn Gyorn had no laws or kinship and wandered around lost.

    Wallungunder saw that he could do good with these people, so he went back to the Milky Way and brought many other Wandjinas with the power of the Dreamtime snake to help him bring laws and kinship to the Gyorn Gyorn people. The Dreamtime snake represents Mother Earth and is called ungud. Each of the artists has his or her own ungud birthplace or dreaming place.
    The Wandjinas created the animals and the baby spirits that reside in the rock pools or sacred ungud places throughout the Kimberley, and continue to control everything that happens on the land and in the sky and sea.

    Sam Woolagoodja (dec), a distinguished and eminent Worora leader and law man, described the Wandjina image by saying 'their power is so great that they don't need to speak, so they have no mouth. Their eyes are powerful and black, like the eye of a cyclone. The lines around a Wandjina's head can mean lots of things – clouds, rain, lightning. The Wandjinas, he said, painted their own images on the cave walls before they returned to the spirit world.'
    In addition to being the sole holder of many sacred laws, one of Sam's most important responsibilities (and one that now belongs to his son, Donny) was the upkeep and repainting of hundreds of Wandjina cave images along the Kimberley coast. This ensures that the Wandjinas' power remains strong.
    Almost 20 years ago, David Mowaljarlai told local Derby District High School art teacher Mark Norval that the elders were very worried about the young people forgetting about the Wandjinas and their true homelands. "They should build a big place out of rocks, like a cave, at Mowanjum and we should do paintings all over those rocks to teach all the kids about our culture," he said.
    Today, through the efforts of the Mowanjum elders and artists and many dedicated local people and businesses, the Wandjina culture is not being lost. Rather, as the artists continue to paint and the Mowanjum children begin to rediscover their own beliefs and heritage, the culture is evolving.

    Thanks to the generosity of the Mowanjum people, the world now has the opportunity to learn about one of the oldest and most powerful images in Aboriginal art and the stories that have been passed on for more than 100 centuries.
    Derby, Western Australia 2011

    Photographer Ingetje Tadros
    Video by Romani Tadros

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  3. The Bull Jumping Ceremony is conducted by several tribes in the Lower Omo Valley and is the most important ceremony in a tribal man's life.The ceremony is about hierarchy and membership in the tribe and typically involves a young man who undergoes a number of rituals before he leaps onto and runs rapidly over a series of cattle held by other men who have recently bull-jumped. Once the jumping is completed, the bull-jumper is a man in the eyes of the tribe.
    An important part of the ceremony is a ritualistic whipping, which women actively seek out from certain men known as Mazha. The women collectively harass these men who then whip them once with a thin reed like stick before casting the stick away. The whipping causes bleeding and intense pain but the women look upon it as a sign of strength, loyalty and obligation to the bull-jumper. They become incensed through a series of dances and then demand to be whipped in a macho, masochistic display. One effect of this ritual whipping is to create a sense of debt between the young man and his "sisters". If the future brings hardship to the women, they hope that he'll remember them because of the pain they went through at his initiation. The resultant scars are worn as a badge of honor by many of the women. The whipping of the women was truly bizar. Women don't hace to participate but many do.
    Hamar tribe, Omo Valley, Ethiopia.
    ©Ingetje Tadros

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  4. Men may marry as many women as they like, but only within their own tribe. A "bride price" of cattle and other goods is provided by the prospective husband and his near relatives. A typical household consists of a woman, her children, and a male protector. A man may be the protector of more than one household, depending on the number of wives he has. Also, men are sometimes assigned the responsibility of protecting a divorced woman, a widow, or the wife of an absent husband (usually his brother). Marriage celebrations include feasting and dancing. Young girls as well as boys are circumcised.
    ©Ingetje Tadros

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Ingetje Tadros

Tribes in Ethiopia

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