1. All five steps of lean thinking (Value, Value Stream, Pull, Flow, and Perfection) focus on customer (stakeholder) value. The fundamental purpose of systems (products, and services) in to provide value for stakeholders. Systems engineers are leaders of systems thinking, systems integration, and systems decision-making. Therefore, systems engineers play a critical role of working with stakeholders to identify and measure stakeholder value during the system life cycle to support systems decision making. Lean and system engineering have very common goals. However, in order to achieve these goals, they need to be able to qualitatively and quantitative define stakeholder value. For complex, dynamic, and interdependent systems there are many system functions that create value for multiple stakeholders. System designs must consider conflicting values and objectives of these multiple stakeholders. This presentation illustrates the use of functional analysis and Value-Focused Thinking with multiple objective decision analysis to develop a mathematically sound value model that clearly identifies stakeholder value across the life cycle value stream and measures the potential value of system designs and improvements that can effectively and efficiently increase potential value. The presentation illustrates and advocates the early development of the value model and the use to the value model to assess value trade-offs during the entire system life cycle.

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  2. This presentation was given at the Lean Software and Systems Conference 2012 (LSSC12).

    Working closely with end users can help ensure complex systems meet not just the contractual specification but also operators’ and other stakeholders’ evolving needs in realistic operational environments. Gaining users’ strong support is crucial to maintaining funding for projects and programs in austere budget environment. But working with users is often difficult to arrange and fraught with challenges: They often disagree among themselves and change their opinions frequently. And which users should we contact and whose inputs should we consider? Users don’t speak engineering and engineers seldom speak “ops” so how can we have a meaningful conversation with them anyway? DOD contracts seldom contain any provisions for contacting or visiting with end users, nor does the USG want to pay for such discussions, so how can we arrange discussions with end users? Since there is no substitute for detailed operational discussions with end users of complex systems, an effective, efficient, reliable method must be found by systems engineers and project managers for the regular, methodical engagement of hands-on users of the systems we design and build. This presentation describes the Technical Concept of Operations (TechCONOPS) as the primary document for tying together users, buyers and designers. Then the briefer discusses the four most common user groups, when to involve each and what kinds of information we can typically get from them. This is followed by a brief discussion of how a robust TechCONOPS can drive modeling and simulation. Lastly the other two key communities (technologists and threat/intel specialists) are discussed in the context of their crucial contributions during regular revisits/updates to the CONOPS. Finally, several real-world examples of failed developmental systems (division air defense artillery system, UAV, imagery analysis software, others) illustrate common pitfalls of not building CONOPS and not involving hands-on end users early enough or often enough in system design and test.

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  3. This presentation was given at the Lean Software and Systems Conference 2012 (LSSC12).

    A decade ago, Wikipedia burst into a world not ready to comprehend it. Thousands of people cooperating effectively, without price signals to offer “incentives” or managerial hierarchy to direct efforts was simply impossible. And yet, it moves. And as it moved it combined with a deep shift across many disciplines, from biology and neuroscience to organizational sociology, experimental economics, and social psychology to paint a very different view of who we are as human beings. Slowly pushing back against decades of ever-refined analyses based on self-interested rationality, we begin to see that we are diverse beings; that a majority of us responds cooperatively to cooperative settings—we tend to treat well those who have treated us well, rather than take advantage of them; we tend to do what we think is right and fair, when it is clear in the setting what that is; we experience empathy, and it makes us more generous and trustworthy; we experience solidarity with others, and that makes us contributed more willingly to the group's goals. Moreover, explicit payments, the touchstone of mechanism design under universal self-interested rationality, turns out to have a much more complex relationship with motivation than simple addition. All this work in basic behavioral sciences combines with observations from organizational sociology, political science, management studies, and social software design to provide a basis on which to build a field of cooperative human systems design.

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  4. This presentation was given at the Lean Software and Systems Conference 2012 (LSSC12).

    The situations we must manage span the range from deterministic to stochastic. On the deterministic end we have wonderful methods from the highly repetitive world of manufacturing. On the extreme stochastic end, completely unpredictable situations with an infinite number of possible conditions, each of unknown likelihood, planning is useless. Product development lies between these extremes – we deal with limited rather than complete uncertainty. Such conditions also appear in other domains. In this session Don Reinertsen will discuss the strategies of decentralized control that are used in the military. Such approaches are interesting because they work at large scale and they have avoided the natural tendency of self-organization to turn into local optimization

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  5. While the design of kanban systems and visualizations is becoming well understood in the community and the concept that the Kanban Method is a way of catalyzing evolutionary change to existing process, there is still little understanding of how get started with a Kanban initiative. This talk will present the systematic approach employed by David J. Anderson to enable organizations to bootstrap a Kanban initiative. David will explain the approach to understanding the current circumstances, soliciting sources of dissatisfaction from all stakeholders via interviews and anecdotal evidence. He will then show how to develop an understanding of demand and capability breaking demand down by work type and required class of service. Workflow can then be studied for each work type by identifying a sequence of dominant activities for knowledge discovery. All of this input is used to develop a kanban system design. The new system is then socialized with stakeholders and its design points negotiated. Finally a rollout plan is produced and a kick-off meeting is held.

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LSSC12 Lean Software and Systems Conference 2012

David J. Anderson & Associates

The Lean Software and Systems Conference 2012 in Boston, MA, USA. http://lssc12.leanssc.org

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