Sometimes, people with iron deficiency anaemia may benefit from additional iron, to help maintain iron homeostasis and erythropoiesis.
This full length edit is taken from a HD 3D stereoscopic movie which shows how intravenous iron preparation can efficiently replace depleted iron stores in patients with iron deficiency anaemia. It consists of a special coating which helps to minimise immunological sensitivity.
Hereditary angioedema (or HAE) is a rare, non-allergic form of angioedema,characterised by a deficiency of C1-esterase inhibitor, known as C1-INH, and caused by mutations within the gene. HAE is generally hereditary, however, in nearly 25% of diagnosed patients, the gene mutations occur de novo.
The trigger for an HAE attack is often unclear, although known factors include emotional stress, trauma and infection. The following animation will describe the physiological function of C1-esterase inhibitor, and how the use of C1-INH replacement therapy can treat the fundamental cause of HAE attacks.
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FVIII is important in the clotting cascade and the generation of the ‘thrombin burst’, which leads to the formation of a haemostatic plug at the site of vascular injury. Following injury to a blood vessel, activated platelets aggregate around the site of the injury
Factor VIII circulating in the blood in a complex with von Willebrand factor is activated by locally generated thrombin.
On the surface of the activated platelets, activated FVIII forms the tenase complex with activated factor nine (IX). This complex activates factor ten (X)
The activated Factor X then forms the prothrombinase complex with activated factor V. This complex rapidly generates thrombin from pro-thrombin creating the so-called thrombin burst
How do the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles work to whiten dental enamel?
Irregular tooth enamel or cracked enamel becomes more dull and darker, since light loses its intensity when it hits the tooth surface. The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles fill the irregularities of the tooth enamel, creating a surface that is smoother and brighter, giving teeth back their natural white colour.
How do the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles work to repair sensitive teeth?
Dental sensitivity is caused by a process of gingival recession or by tooth enamel wear. When this occurs, the dentin loses its protective covering and the dentinal tubules are exposed, allowing external stimuli to reach the nerve ends and cause pain. The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are deposited on teeth, sealing the open dentinal tubules and blocking the transmission of external stimuli to the pulp, therefore preventing pain. They form a protective coating that is resistant to washing right from the first application, ensuring the repair of sensitive teeth.