1. 2011 Joint AAPM/COMP Meeting
    Madan M. Rehani, PhD, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, A-1400, AUSTRIA
    For more information about the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, visit aapm.org/

    There are some actions which require international cooperation. An example of good cooperation can be found in the largely seamless international use of credit cards and ATM machines. Conversely, an example where international cooperation has not been effective can be found in the diversity of electricity plugs and sockets in different countries. In the area of radiation protection, there are also examples of good and bad cooperation. The global acceptance of concepts and principles of radiation protection as developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) such as justification, optimization and dose limitation is a good example. Conversely, there are quite a few examples of non-agreement or partial agreement of issues in the field of radiation protection, such as dose limits for workers and members of the public, and acceptance of SI units e.g. Sv and Gy against rem and rad. When it comes to radiation protection of patients, there is universal agreement that there should be no dose limits and that the concept of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) should be used with flexibility. International actions are needed not only to create harmonization of concepts but also to give impetus to some areas, raise awareness about emerging issues and forewarn about upcoming dangers if actions are not initiated by countries well in time.

    The talk will cover “How does the International System of Radiation Protection work” and inform about an International Action Plan on Radiation Protection of Patients of the IAEA. Is the international system binding or national systems are?. How harmonization is achieved through the work of the IAEA. Ultimately, the role medical physicists and health physicists in implementing the radiation protection requirements for staff and patient protection shall be discussed.

    Learning Objectives:
    1. To understand the system of radiation protection in international and national context
    2. To become familiar with international action plan on radiation protection of patients
    3. To become familiar with international organizations in the area of medical radiation protection
    4. To understand the potential role you can play in international activities

    # vimeo.com/75987608 Uploaded 92 Plays 0 Comments
  2. 2011 Joint AAPM/COMP Meeting
    Dr. J. Anthony Seibert, PhD, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, 95817, United States
    For more information about the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, visit aapm.org/

    Diagnostic Exposure Tracking in the Medical Record
    The Electronic Medical Record (EMR) represents the collection of diagnostic tests and procedural test information related to an individual patient’s history of care at a health center. In the context of medical diagnostic imaging, this relates to the access to imaging procedures, the written diagnoses from the imaging experts, and of increasing relevance and importance, the radiation dose reports for the procedures. The EMR is also emerging as the gateway for computerized order entry for imaging exams, in which the imaging history and accumulated radiation dose will be made available for the referring physician from various imaging procedures, such as interventional radiology and cardiology, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine. Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Radiation Exposure Monitoring (REM) profile specifies how information related to dose can be extracted from modalities that are compliant with the DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Report (RDSR). However, once the information is collected via the RDSR, appropriate steps must be taken to parse the data according to exam types, body area scanned, and dose metrics provided in order to apply conversion factors to estimate an effective dose for a procedure. Effective dose estimates can be considerably under or overestimated, depending on the modality, the patient size, machine calibration errors, and a host of issues that are under current investigation. In this presentation, a review of the various dose metrics for the modalities is discussed, as are current methods to calculate the effective dose. Ultimately, to post the dose information in the EMR, a dose-management actor described by the IHE REM profile captures the pertinent dose information from each modality and study, parses the data and computes the effective dose according to defined conversion methods. Each individual dose report message transmitted to the EMR is stored in the patient dose report file defined by medical record number, which updates the dose index raw data (e.g., DAP in Interventional radiology, CTDIvol, DLP in CT), the calculated effective dose per procedure, and total cumulative effective dose for the patient.

    Learning objectives:
    1. Understand the various dose metrics produced by the imaging modalities.
    2. Determine how effective dose can be estimated for a given procedure with the dose index values provided by a modality.
    3. Understand limitations of effective dose calculations, the wide range of under/over estimates that can occur for a specific procedure, and the limitations of the total cumulative patient effective dose.

    # vimeo.com/76061183 Uploaded 98 Plays 0 Comments
  3. 2011 Joint AAPM/COMP Meeting
    Eric Gingold, PhD
    For more information about the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, visit aapm.org/

    Digital Projection X-ray Detectors: A review of current technology and commercial
    landscape.
    In the last decade there has been an explosion in the number of digital projection x-ray acquisition systems available in the marketplace. There has been an accompanying explosion in the terminology describing the different x-ray detector technologies used in the different commercial systems. Various companies use similar nomenclature to describe systems that incorporate markedly different detector technologies, while others use different terminology to describe essentially the same technology. This has resulted in considerable confusion in the clinical community as to the differentiating features of different commercially available systems.
    This lecture will review the most common digital projection x-ray detector technologies with a particular focus on identifying the differentiating aspects of their design and capabilities. Particular attention will be paid to the similarities and differences in the detector’s fundamental imaging components with a view to explaining the range of imaging capabilities of the different approaches.
    The second half of the presentation will focus on the clinical implementation of the different detector technologies. A broad review of the currently available clinical systems will be given and the connection between system capabilities and detector design will be discussed. The issue of detector “speed” in a digital environment will be addressed in the context of the new IEC exposure index currently being implemented by system manufacturers. The talk will conclude with a discussion of the new wireless digital detectors currently being introduced into the clinical workplace.

    Learning Objectives:
    (1) Identify and understand the differentiating features of different digital projection x-ray detector technologies
    (2) Understand the impact of detector design on system imaging performance
    (3) Understand the clinical limitations and advantages inherent to the different detector designs
    (4) Review the current commercial system landscape in terms of the different detector technologies

    # vimeo.com/75987380 Uploaded 142 Plays 0 Comments
  4. 2011 Joint AAPM/COMP Meeting
    John Yorkston
    For more information about the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, visit aapm.org/

    Digital Projection X-ray Detectors: A review of current technology and commercial
    landscape.
    In the last decade there has been an explosion in the number of digital projection x-ray acquisition systems available in the marketplace. There has been an accompanying explosion in the terminology describing the different x-ray detector technologies used in the different commercial systems. Various companies use similar nomenclature to describe systems that incorporate markedly different detector technologies, while others use different terminology to describe essentially the same technology. This has resulted in considerable confusion in the clinical community as to the differentiating features of different commercially available systems.
    This lecture will review the most common digital projection x-ray detector technologies with a particular focus on identifying the differentiating aspects of their design and capabilities. Particular attention will be paid to the similarities and differences in the detector’s fundamental imaging components with a view to explaining the range of imaging capabilities of the different approaches.
    The second half of the presentation will focus on the clinical implementation of the different detector technologies. A broad review of the currently available clinical systems will be given and the connection between system capabilities and detector design will be discussed. The issue of detector “speed” in a digital environment will be addressed in the context of the new IEC exposure index currently being implemented by system manufacturers. The talk will conclude with a discussion of the new wireless digital detectors currently being introduced into the clinical workplace.

    Learning Objectives:
    (1) Identify and understand the differentiating features of different digital projection x-ray detector technologies
    (2) Understand the impact of detector design on system imaging performance
    (3) Understand the clinical limitations and advantages inherent to the different detector designs
    (4) Review the current commercial system landscape in terms of the different detector technologies

    # vimeo.com/75987054 Uploaded 109 Plays 0 Comments
  5. 2011 Joint AAPM/COMP Meeting
    Dr. Ehsan Samei, PhD, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27705, United States
    For more information about the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, visit aapm.org/

    Digital radiography has gained widespread usage essentially replacing analog techniques
    in most clinics in the developed world. While the technology has correspondingly
    matured over many decades, the variety in the technological offerings has also increased
    ranging from computed radiography, to flat-panel technology, to CCD and CMOS based
    sensors. Newest offerings include devices that can provide imaging signals wirelessly
    enhancing the portability and retrofit use of the imaging devices. New dynamic detectors
    have also enabled new image acquisition techniques including dual-energy and
    tomosynthesis, increasing the dimensionality of the acquired image data. With the
    increased complexity and variety, there is a need to have established performance
    assessment techniques that provide standard means to understand and relate image
    quality metrics across variety of devices and technologies. This presentation offers a
    comprehensive tutorial for two and three-dimensional image quality evaluation of digital
    radiographic systems. Topics covered include 2D and 3D resolution measurements,
    noise characterization, DQE assessments, and DQE assessment in the presence of scatter
    and magnification (effective DQE, eDQE). The presentation further attempts to define a
    comprehensive quality index that may serve as a basis of imaging quality assessment and
    optimization.
    Learning objectives:
    1. To understand methods for 2D and 3D resolution measurements.
    2. To understand the basics for DQE and eDQE measurement techniques.
    3. To relate physical metrics of performance to clinical image quality.

    # vimeo.com/75985245 Uploaded 44 Plays 0 Comments

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