1. lifestylefacts.org

    References: Virginia Gurley - “Introduction to Sleep”

    Reddy AB, O’Neill JS. Healthy clocks, healthy body, healthy mind. Trends in Cell Biology. 2010;20(1):36-44. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2009.10.005.

    Bonmati-Carrion MA, Arguelles-Prieto R, Martinez-Madrid MJ, et al. Protecting the Melatonin Rhythm through Circadian Healthy Light Exposure. Slominski A, ed. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014;15(12):23448-23500. doi:10.3390/ijms151223448.

    Schroeder AM, Colwell CS. How to fix a broken clock. Trends in pharmacological sciences. 2013;34(11):10.1016/j.tips.2013.09.002. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2013.09.002.

    MB (Marc Braman, MD, MPH):
    Hi, I’m Dr. Marc Braman, here with one of our LifestyleFacts’ experts Dr. Virginia Gurley. Welcome Dr. Gurley!

    VG (Virginia Gurley, MD, MPH):
    Thank you, Dr. Braman, glad to be with you today.
    MB:
    And we are talking today about an introduction to sleep, the topic itself. So, sleep doesn’t really seem that important. I mean, in medical school they taught us by example that sleep really didn’t matter. I remember the neurosurgery residents thinking it was hilarious that the chief neurosurgery resident kept falling asleep mid sentence in the middle of his dictations. Our attitude seems to be just drink more coffee and everything is OK. So what does sleep actually do for us? Why is it important?
    VG:
    Well, sleep is really when your body and mind takes care of all of it’s housekeeping processes – all repairing, healing and building processes happen during sleep, so it’s super important.
    MB:
    Ok, so it affects us physically, does sleep affect us mentally or emotionally? When we’re tired we tend to be grumpy, but is there anything beyond that?
    VG:
    Yeah, sleep affects every aspect of our mental and emotional health – including how well we cope with stress, our risk for mental disorders like depression and anxiety, how well we learn and the brain’s ability to turn information into memory, and even how well we get along with other people.
    MB:
    Wow, so what medical problems could be at least partially caused by sleep issues?
    VG:
    Here again sleep has such a huge effect on our health. Physically, it’s connected with problems like high blood pressure and heart attacks, and problems with metabolism like diabetes and overweight, and inflammatory diseases and even cancer, and mental emotional diseases like depression, anxiety disorders, and attention deficits are also related to sleep disorders.
    MB:
    Wow, so it sounds like it’s a pretty big deal. Do we know how large the effect of sleep is on us and our conditions? I mean, compared to other potential causes or medications, what kind of magnitude does sleep have or do we even know?
    VG:
    Our understanding of how sleep affects health and contributes to diseases is actually fairly new, and the studies to compare sleep to other treatments just haven’t been done yet. But we do know that the effect of sleep on our health and on disease processes is quite pronounced. It’s profound because it’s key to all our healing and repair processes.
    MB:
    Okay, do we know how many people have these kinds of problems? I mean, how common are these issues?
    VG:
    Well it’s hard to say, but it’s estimated that at least 50 million American adults have repeated problems getting restful sleep, and there’s also a growing recognition that many children are affected by on-going, recurring problems with sleep disturbance. This isn’t just like what some people experience now and again with a night here and a night there of difficulty sleeping. This is ongoing chronic sleep problems.
    MB:
    Ok, so this a huge problem. We probably are just starting to recognize it. It’s probably even bigger. What has happened that it’s now such a big issue?
    VG:
    Well one the biggest sources of the problem is that our relationship with sunlight and night time darkness has changed completely. We get too much light at night and not enough light during the day, so our body’s schedule of healing processes have gotten out of sync. And then also the lack of daily physical activity which used to often happen outside is also contributing to the problem.
    MB:
    Ok, so what I’m hearing is we’re basically creating this problem, which then begs the question can we use sleep as part of our treatment? Can we simply fix what is causing the problem?
    VG:
    The short answer is yes. And how we use sleep to improve health and treat diseases depends on what you’re treating.
    MB:
    Ok, great. So the good news thus far is that we actually have a lot of control over our health destiny and we are really not dependent on just a pill to fix us. Sleep is medicine. And we have the ability to treat the cause. So here’s your prescription for the day. Go to bed! Get some good sleep! Thank you, Dr. Gurley.
    VG:
    Thank you, Dr. Braman.

    # vimeo.com/132238086 Uploaded 17 Plays 0 Comments
  2. lifestylefacts.org

    References: Virginia Gurley - Sleep 101 - “Food and Sleep”

    Lucassen EA, Rother KI, Cizza G. Interacting epidemics? Sleep curtailment, insulin resistance, and obesity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2012;1264(1):110-134. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06655.x.

    Greer SM, Goldstein AN, Walker MP. The impact of sleep deprivation on food desire in the human brain. Nature communications. 2013;4:2259. doi:10.1038/ncomms3259.

    Kurt Kräuchi, Christian Cajochen, Esther Werth, and Anna Wirz-Justice. Alteration of Internal Circadian Phase Relationships after Morning versus Evening Carbohydrate-Rich Meals in Humans. J Biol Rhythms August 2002 17: 364-376, doi:10.1177/074873040201700409

    Oike H, Oishi K, Kobori M. Nutrients, Clock Genes, and Chrononutrition. Current Nutrition Reports. 2014;3(3):204-212. doi:10.1007/s13668-014-0082-6.

    Buxton OM, Cain SW, O’Connor SP, et al. Metabolic Consequences in Humans of Prolonged Sleep Restriction Combined with Circadian Disruption. Science translational medicine. 2012;4(129):129ra43. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003200.

    Gooley JJ, Chamberlain K, Smith KA, et al. Exposure to Room Light before Bedtime Suppresses Melatonin Onset and Shortens Melatonin Duration in Humans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011;96(3):E463-E472. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-2098.

    Zeitzer JM, Duffy JF, Lockley SW, Dijk DJ, Czeisler CA. Plasma melatonin rhythms in young and older humans during sleep, sleep deprivation, and wake. Sleep. 2007;30(11):1437-1443.

    Sletten TL, Vincenzi S, Redman JR, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SMW. Timing of Sleep and Its Relationship with the Endogenous Melatonin Rhythm. Frontiers in Neurology. 2010;1:137. doi:10.3389/fneur.2010.00137.

    # vimeo.com/132238088 Uploaded 14 Plays 0 Comments
  3. lifestylefacts.org

    References: Virginia Gurley - Sleep 101 - “Melatonin Basics”

    Chang A-M, Aeschbach D, Duffy JF, Czeisler CA. Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2015;112(4):1232-1237. doi:10.1073/pnas.1418490112.

    Gooley JJ, Chamberlain K, Smith KA, et al. Exposure to Room Light before Bedtime Suppresses Melatonin Onset and Shortens Melatonin Duration in Humans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011;96(3):E463-E472. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-2098.

    Carotene C, Munch M, Kobialka S, et al. High Sensitivity of Human Melatonin, Alertness, Thermoregulation, and Heart Rate to Short Wavelength Light. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2005;90(3):1311-1316. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-0957.

    Rahman SA, Marcu S, Shapiro CM, Brown TJ, Casper RF. Spectral modulation attenuates molecular, endocrine, and neurobehavioral disruption induced by nocturnal light exposure. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;300:E518-E527, 2011.

    Naseem M, Parvez S. Role of Melatonin in Traumatic Brain Injury and Spinal Cord Injury. The Scientific World Journal. 2014; doi:10.1155/2014586270.

    # vimeo.com/132238090 Uploaded 11 Plays 0 Comments
  4. lifestylefacts.org

    References: Harvard Health Publications, Gardiner J., Prouty J., Bean, J. (2014). Workout Workbook: 9 Complete Workouts to Help You Get Fit and Healthy. Harvard Medical School Special Health Reports.

    Hi. I’m Dr. Eddie Phillips. I’m a physician specializing in lifestyle medicine and board certified in physical medicine and rehabilitation.

    My patients know that I will always ask them, “How much exercise did you get this week?”

    Do you know that only three out of ten American adults are active enough to stay healthy and fit? That’s despite reams of research proving that exercise prevents disability and illness.

    We all know that exercise will help us achieve a healthier looking body. But over time, regular exercise will reward us with robust health, a better quality of life and even a longer life.

    Want more reasons to exercise?

    For starters, what if I told you that exercise actually adds years to your life. That’s right… years.

    The evidence has been around for over half a century. For example, the Framingham Heart Study has been following the same group of people and now their families since 1948 to determine the major risk factors for heart disease. Those are high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, smoking, obesity, diabetes and physical inactivity.

    Want another reason? How about the fact that exercise reduces your risk of heart disease.
    In other words, those hikes in the park, workouts in the gym and bicycle rides in the neighborhood help to prevent artery clogging plaque build-up. Plaque is the bad stuff that reduces blood flow to your heart and other vital organs in your body. Increased blood flow from exercise also helps retain the resilience of your arteries—or the health of artery walls—and lowers your chances of dying from heart disease even if you already have this condition.

    Exercise also lowers blood pressure. Hypertension is a very serious threat to our health. It increases our risk of heart disease and other body system failures like strokes and heart attack.
    So exercise, at moderate to vigorous levels, can get those blood pressure numbers down to generally normal readings of around 120 over 80 or lower.

    Here’s a benefit of exercise that you might not be aware of. Exercise can prevent diabetes. And with diabetes increasing at an alarming rate, daily exercise is one of the simplest and bet prevention strategies.
    You see, there’s a connection between diabetes and factors like weight, blood sugar levels and sensitivity to insulin. Exercise helps moderate all of these so your insulin—the hormone that allows your body to use sugar for energy—does its job properly.
    Even if you have diabetes, exercise can be a big help in controlling blood sugar to avoid dangerous highs and lows.

    One of the greatest benefits of exercise is that it reduces your risk of developing certain cancers. Yes, there’s a connection between our physical activity level and cancers of the colon, breast, uterine lining and prostate.

    As we get older, osteoporosis or loss of bone density can be a concern. Weight-bearing exercise combined with supplements or medications can keep our bones strong.
    Examples of weight-bearing exercises are jogging, strength training, walking, yoga, climbing stairs, golf, tennis and even dancing. Just so you know, activities that don’t have weight-bearing characteristics include swimming and bicycling even though they benefit your cardiovascular system.

    Other benefits of exercise include reduction of joint pain, lifted spirits, improved sleep and resistance to infections. This is because increased blood flow, burning of calories, and muscle use releases certain hormones that support our overall body functions and keep our systems in tune.

    So why should you exercise? Well, you can look at yourself in the mirror and know that you’re doing something really important to maintain good health, prevent disease and live well.

    # vimeo.com/132241349 Uploaded 28 Plays 0 Comments
  5. lifestylefacts.org

    References: Virginia Gurley - Sleep 101 - “Nighttime Lights and Sleep”

    Duffy JF, Czeisler CA. Effect of Light on Human Circadian Physiology. Sleep medicine clinics. 2009;4(2):165-177. doi:10.1016/j.jsmc.2009.01.004.

    Chang A-M, Scheer FAJL, Czeisler CA, Aeschbach D. Direct Effects of Light on Alertness, Vigilance, and the Waking Electroencephalogram in Humans Depend on Prior Light History. Sleep. 2013;36(8):1239-1246. doi:10.5665/sleep.2894.

    Chang A-M, Aeschbach D, Duffy JF, Czeisler CA. Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2015;112(4):1232-1237. doi:10.1073/pnas.1418490112.

    Carotene C, Munch M, Kobialka S, et al. High Sensitivity of Human Melatonin, Alertness, Thermoregulation, and Heart Rate to Short Wavelength Light. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2005;90(3):1311-1316. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-0957.

    # vimeo.com/132241346 Uploaded 9 Plays 0 Comments

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