Two-dimensional simulation of a swimmer performing a C-start maneuvering. Colors indicate positive (red) and negative (blue) vorticity, while grey edges represent the Lagrangian coherent structures generated by the moving body. The fish "rolls up a ball" in the C shape and with a backflip of the tail it sheds it downstream, gaining momentum in the opposite direction.


1) M. Gazzola, W. van Rees, and P. Koumoutsakos. C-start: optimal start of larval fish. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 698:5–18, 2012.

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Numerics and artificial intelligence

Mattia Gazzola

Some fun with flow-structure interaction problems, from cylinders to smart swimmers

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