For some time, listeners and readers have been regarded as active participants in the complex and interactional nature of negotiating meaning (Savignon, 2001). However, many of those who are learning English do not have equal access to the skills of understanding the social practices in which reading and writing are embedded (Clark, 1995). For English language learners to critically engage with textual and cultural practices, they must have access to, and be able to critique, both cultural and linguistic resources (Hammond & Mackin-Horarick, 1999). One way to achieve this effectively in English language teaching is to consider the teaching of context and interpersonal meaning alongside the meaning of the words themselves. This paper will respond to the challenge of teaching critical literacy skills to English language learners and attempt to contribute to its development in the classroom. It will present some of the underlying theory and provide practical examples taken from a study in progress to demonstrate how contextual features can affect the meaning of the language used in texts. In addition, it will explore how linguistic choices made by writers can be used as powerful strategies to shape readers’ perceptions. The study focuses on newspaper texts from the US, the UK and Australia written in 2008 on the Global Financial Crisis. The presentation will conclude with suggestions of how this analysis of discourse could be modified for use as a pedagogical tool to teach critical literacy in the English language learning classroom.
Jennifer Cope, The University of Sydney, Australia
Globalization has increased the immigration trend. Generation 1.5 – youth born in their home countries, who immigrated to another country with their families and received education there – is increasing in population in many parts of the world. As the young immigrants struggle to adjust their identity, many have developed a new mindset from living within another culture. Consequently, Generation 1.5 may become a new force which bonds two different cultures and generations. Generation 1.5 is a vital social capital. Respect and trust should be developed by providing academic support and empowerment through humanizing pedagogy. Exposure to original languages and cultures of Generation 1.5 may also encourage pride in their own heritage. Based on the researches of an educator and mother of Generation 1.5 teenagers, when adolescents are encouraged, they will maintain positive images toward their future. In turn, it may motivate their investment in academic and social activities, promoting them to pursue their goals and contribute to a healthy, meaningful multi-society. As a visual artist, educator, and a cultural hybrid herself, Wan Yu Wendy Chien has an interest in searching for possibilities that merges two cultures into a new whole. She proposes images of a culturally bonded world, which celebrates collaboration, connection, and acceptance. Through Chien’s lived experienced, she presents works that generate conversations for two cultures, their people, and the people in between. Chien considers herself an agent whose task is to reflect and respond to the potential and prospect of her generation: Generation
This paper investigates the ways teachers' ideologies shape second-language English teachers' interpretations of formal written curriculum guidelines. Shkedi (2009) finds that although teachers express varying levels of loyalty to the written curriculum they often create divergent curriculum tasks, essentially constructing an entirely new curriculum. Teachers' interpretations of the curriculum include teachers' past experiences, beliefs about the role and positioning of language in the world, and beliefs about the needs of students and the nature of education. Teachers' ideologies impact their interpretations of formal written curriculum guidelines concerning the teaching of English. Ideologies of standardization and purism, as well as varying perceptions of the importance of English in an increasingly globalized world, pervade second-language-learning educational environments, shaping teachers interpretations of curriculum guidelines. Teachers also construct culturally resonant ideological frameworks concerning the nature and aims of teaching. This study is carried out in a small suburban high school in the emirate of Abu Dhabi where native-English-speaking teachers work alongside bilingual, native-Arabic-speaking teachers to implement the English language curriculum mandated by the Abu Dhabi Education Council. The data comprises teachers' narratives of experience (Connelly & Clandinin, 1990), constructed from interviews and participant observation of native-English-speaking and bilingual, native-Arabic-speaking teachers over a period of three semesters. Preliminary findings of the study are discussed in relation to historical debates concerning English as a Lingua Franca. Ultimately, recommendations are made to establish open dialogue between native-English-speaking and bilingual, native-Arabic-speaking teachers to encourage reflection on the spirit of the formal written curriculum.
Autonomy in language learning has been a key discussion in the realm of language teaching and learning for more than 30 years. However, to date, much research on autonomy was mainly focused on fostering learner autonomy in the classroom context. Autonomy in out-of-class learning is less paid into attention. According to Benson (2006: 26), out-of-class language learning is “a relatively new area in the literature on autonomy.” This present study srutinizes Indonesian tertiary students’ experiences in learning English beyond the classroom. Mixed method was employed in this study. A questionnaire which consisted of 19 Likert-scale items was distributed to 192 university students. To gain deeper insight into students’ experiences in out-of-class EFL learning, the researcher conducted the interview with six students. The quantitative analysis revealed that students’ autonomy in out-of-class EFL learning was at moderate level. The qualitative analysis supported the quantitative results with students’ narratives about their experiences in out-of-class EFL learning.
Priyatno Ardi, Institute of Languages and Communication, Indonesia
Frequent quizzing is one of the major factors motivating students to study. The clicker system was a promising technology but has some limitations. Most of the universities in the developing countries do not have it and some instructors have problem using it. In this study, a system based on SMS is suggested. Mobiles phones are ubiquitous especially in the developing countries and almost all have Short Message Service. Methods: An android application was developed by the author that receives SMS, grades them instantly and produces lists of names and scores, summary of scores and answers according to questions (more details in the appendix). The system was tested in classrooms at Hawler Medical University . Feedback from 250 students in stages 3 and 4 in addition to 10 instructors were analyzed both quantitative and qualitatively respectively.
Results: Most of the students (87%) thought that the new system was easy to use and more convenient compared to the traditional pen and paper. The only concern was money spent on the quiz (about 0.02 US$). On the other hand, the faculties' feedback was overwhelming positive (100%) stating that it reduces the boring time of checking student answers from 30-60 minute depending on the class size to virtually zero. Conclusions: The new SMS Quiz systems seems to be promising that reduces the chore of answer checking to zero minutes and the and students also finds is superior to the traditional pen and paper quizzes.