Over the last several years, the world has seen a change in the international climate negotiation. Countries have been keeping track of their CO2 emission. Even more, multilevel engagement leads decision makers setting climate change mitigation strategy from nation governance (country) level to local governance (city) level. According to the UN-Habitat's and IEA's reports, they pointed that cities are now home to half of people, and these people use 2/3 energy consumption. And then, the main human sources of GHGs are the rapid increase in energy use, land-use changes and emissions from industrial activities. Cities and towns produce between 40 and 70% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. What are the key motivations for cities to embark on climate change mitigation? What and how they differ? How climate change mitigation action plans interact with other development plans of cities? Do they facilitate or impede each other? This study discussed the relationship of policy goals and policy instruments in multilevel governance, and illustrated by data from Australia, Japan, Netherland and UK. It concluded that the city plays an important role as a platform for implementing mitigation strategies. Policy goals of different cities related to climate change mitigation can be overall reexamined. However, meeting all these policy goals requires facilitating synergies of policy instruments and avoiding conflicts of these instruments.
Liang-huey Lo, Science & Technology Policy Research and Information Center, NARL, Taiwan