Satyajit Ray is the most internationally acknowledged Indian film maker. In many of his films symbols were used to represent actions, beliefs, feelings etc. Like in Pather Pachali’s (The Song of the Little Road) where Apu drops the hidden necklace into the pond covered with pondweeds or the sudden stopping of the clock ticking in Apu’s Sansar (World of Apu) or the last scene in Pratidwandi (The Adversary) where a dead body is carried in the background, etc. are all symbolism. This paper signifies the use of symbolism in Ray’s 1966 film Nayak. The work represents a detailed study of the small symbolic nuances in the film, used to establish the hiddenness and insecurities of the character of matinee idol Arindam Mukherjee played by Uttam Kumar. The casting scene, the introductory scene, the scene of telephonic conversation, scene of the burning pyre of Shankar, the journey itself, etc. were studied during this work. The analysis of the scenes are based on the lighting, objects, sounds, actions, events, symbols, etc. used in the film and the reaction of the protagonist to it or vice versa.The study gives an insight of how Ray builds this character in Nayak and how the symbolic detailing is important in developing characters in a cinema.
Arunabh Banerjee, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, India
Guangzhou is the city with the highest degree of law and order in China, given its reputation as China’s window of modernization and engine of economic development. Yet it is also the birthplace of countless riots and revolutions whose influence can still be felt. Huang Weikai’s film Disorder presents us with both sides of the coin: showing policemen responding to trivial matters of people’s lives, firefighters rushing in and out of a small alley, the water gushing through the fractured pipe and flooding everything, pigs running loose on the turnpike blocking traffic during rush hour, and an infant abandoned in a trash pit, alive but doomed, to name just a few. Through trembling, poorly-lit, low-resolution amateur shots taken at point-blank from cellphone cameras, the audience meets the dynamic dis/order in medias res. Director Huang, however, mischievously removes all color, referential information, and overarching plot as he digitally collages these images in black and white. The “common” is now a conundrum and Guangzhou is shown as a lieu de memoire, where the future is already buried in its past since the “now” has no mooring point in a dystopian world. As Huang states in the film’s Chinese title—today is the future of yesterday—disorder may not be the symptom but the solution to bring a “future in memory” into being. Huang is simultaneously a gritty realist documenting China’s growing pains, and a surrealist filmmaker working in the city symphony genre, suggesting that the experience of Guangzhou’s urban reality is surreal.
Yongan Wu, University of North Florida, USA
Nicholas de Villiers, University of North Florida, USA