Higher education institutions across the world are under growing pressures from external factors such as growth of students, internationalization and changes in world economy. In this landscape, the evaluation of learning and teaching will become more prevalent for practitioners. This paper outlines the findings from a mixed methods research study on evaluation. Focusing on locally funded learning and teaching projects in the higher education sector, the study aims were to investigate what approaches to evaluation have been used, what the project leaders’ understandings are of evaluation and whether there is alignment between evaluation theory and practice. The theoretical framework for this study utilizes the emergent realism paradigm, recognising practicality, contextual responsiveness and consequentiality as important factors for success. An Action Research approach is adopted to allow findings from this study to be integrated into the next phase of the research. A set of criteria was developed, informed by the literature, and applied to a purposeful sample of projects from one Australian university. A range of findings emerged: There is a lack of time to conduct evaluation properly; the evaluation-planning phase is often not carried out; there is an apparent misunderstanding of the difference between evaluation and research; there is little importance placed on the initial planning stage in the evaluation process; and there is a broad need for more support mechanisms in the area of evaluation of learning and teaching projects in higher education. This study confirms that there is misalignment between evaluation theory and practice of learning and teaching project evaluation in the sector and that the project leader’s perception of evaluation can inhibit this relationship. Findings from the study offer high utility in the current landscape of quality education, university accountability and transparency in the use of public funding as well as meeting the needs of diverse stakeholders.
Elaine Huber, Macquarie University, Australia
Marina Harvey, Macquarie University, Australia
Concerning Jia Zhangke’s pursuit of an ingenuous cinematic language, Jia’s particular documentary-inflected realism, most evident in his use of nonprofessional actors as an instrument for the interweaving of documentary and staged footage, ambitiously joins the discourse of documentary film with his parallel projects—the documentary film, Dong (2006), and the fiction film, Still Life (2006). Triggered by the controversial Three Gorges Dam project, the performance and roles of Han and Zhou become ambivalent as they provide a channel for Jia’s cinematic manipulation of actuality, and consequently open up various approaches of crossing the boundary between historical beings and fictional characters. Han’s role, oscillating between the two oppositions, becomes the vehicle for applying the sense of “documentary-ness” to the staged footage of Still Life, and re-establishing the “documentary-ness” of Dong’s documentary footage reinterpreted in Still Life. Zhou’s portrayal of Xiaomage in Still Life, extensively combined with Dong’s documentary footage, eventually transforms Xiaomage into a historical being. Considering how their performance disturb the boundary separating documentary film from fiction film, this paper will engage with Dai Vaughan’s examination of the ambiguity of documentary, Chris Berry’s notion of “in the now (and then)” temporality, and Jaimie Baron’s concept of the “archive effect.” Through their contemplation upon the filmmaker-text-viewer relationship, this paper, therefore, attempts to re-think how the performance of nonprofessional actors within both the documentary and staged footage disturbs and manipulates the conventional filmmaker-text-viewer relationship in documentary, and how that relationship might function to constitute Still Life as an expanded documentary work.
When the children are learning how to speak, they will listen to the sound first and remember it. And trying to make the same sound through their own articulator, then making connection between the sound and the object. It will be much attractive for children before 3 years old if the toys can make human sounds. In Taiwan, it is not easy to find some kind of interactive teaching materials for Hakka than Mandarin and English in local bookstores; if the children want to learn Hakka, the only way would be having conversations with an adult who speaking Hakka. It will not be easy as Mandarin and English for children to learn to speak Hakka by themselves while they are alone. In this study, we want to design an audio interactive teaching materials for a 19 month old Hakka-Mandrarin bilingual girl. First, to record the girl's daily life. Second, make several simple theme in the daily life, for example appellation, bath. We wish that we can not only make the parents and the kids to learn Hakka through this interactive teaching materials but also developing an interest for kids to learn Hakka by themselves.
Wan-Chun Tang, National Hsinchu University of Education, Taiwan
This study critically examined the general point of view about William Forsythe’s choreography, which has been described as chaotic, disorderly, and deconstructionist. Based upon complex system theory, we would like to suggest a new possibility that Forsythe’s choreography can be interpreted as visibly ordered, rule-based, and structured. For this purpose, we used 2353 images captured in One Flat Thing, Reproduced (2006), which is considered as one of his major works, with 1-second intervals, and divided them into beginning and latter parts. Then, we conducted three analyses on the basis of the concepts among complex system theory as follows: 1) Emergence: whether compositional regularity appears throughout the whole structure; 2) Feedback: how frequently interactions occur with the dancers; 3) Co-evolution: what relationships exist between individual movements and the whole choreographic structure. As a result, we found regular moving patterns throughout the whole structure and revealed that Forsythe’s choreography changed from explicit rules to implicit regularity. In addition, we confirmed that each movement influenced the whole composition pattern. This study, thus, suggests that Forsythe’s choreography moves toward spontaneous order rather than deconstruction. Furthermore, we posit the real meaning of the deconstruction that he has pursued is for re-composition, re-construction, and re-invention. Ultimately, redefining Forsythe’s choreography from a different standpoint will inspire follow-up studies on Forsythe’s performance by making it possible to interpret Forsythe with complex system theory.
Minseo Kim, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea
Jeounghoon Kim, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea